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Nazrēt, Ethiopia

Nurfeta A.,Hawassa University | Abdu Y.,Adama University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4 ± 0.74 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella + 25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella + 50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella + 75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P < 0.05), while sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P < 0.05) total crude protein (CP) intake was for sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility as compared with those fed T1, T2, and T6 diets. Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P > 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P < 0.05) average daily gain was for sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention, while those fed T6 diet had the lowest. The study has shown that a mixture diet consisting of equal parts of katikala atella and malt sprout (T3) are found to be superior in most of the required nutrient characteristics. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Nutto L.,Federal University of Parana | Wirthu G.,Adama University
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung | Year: 2012

The Government of Ethiopia wants the country to achieve a 12% growth in its Gross Domestic Product by 2011. Since Ethiopia's economy is based mainly in the primary sector, agriculture and forestry play important roles. One of the main forestry-related problems, which must be resolved, is the low value aggregation on wood products. However, the population is highly dependent on wood as the only affordable energy source, and at the same time, there is a need to expand agricultural land for food production. Within this framework, the present study aims to analyse future wood supply and demand in Ethiopia. The changes in native forests and plantations are used to evaluate forest sustainability. Wood increment is estimated by data taken from available statistics and literature and is considered in the context of the Government's forestry action and afforestation plans. Wood consumption data are taken from official statistics {Tab. 1, Fig. 2) and forecasted using population growth (Fig. 1), proving a strong correlation. From the available forest areas and their productivity, future wood supply and demand in Ethiopia is derived (Fig. 1 and 3) and the country's potentials for higher value aggregated wood products, as it is a declared wish of the government, is evaluated.

Sahilu H.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Villafiorita A.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Weldemariam K.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Belachew M.,MCIT | Zewge A.,Adama University
Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, DEV 2012 | Year: 2012

In developing countries, agriculture is the largest livelihood provider. Nevertheless, the vast majority of gains by farmers are unsatisfactory despite the efforts put into the agriculture cost inputs. At present smallholder farmers, farmers associations, consumers, intermediaries and supporting organizations (e.g., extension agencies) are often unable to engage effectively in agricultural markets since these markets are prone to inefficiencies. Small and subsistence farmers in particular tend to have unfavorable linkages to markets due to a lack of market orientation. They continue to rely on market information supplied and verified through traditional word-of-mouth approach. Many producers and smaller intermediaries also lack experience to effectively utilize such market information to improve their well-being. © 2012 Authors.

Dinka H.,Adama University | Duressa A.,Asella Regional Veterinary Laboratory
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 625 animals (140 local Arsi cattle breeds and 485 of their crosses with pure Holstein Friesians) randomly selected from four districts of Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, using comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test. An overall individual animal prevalence of 12.16% was recorded under traditional animal husbandry system in the study area. The higher percentage of positiee results in tested animals was recorded in Arsi Zone (15.8%) and the lower percentage of positive results was found in the West Arsi Zone (8.9%). There was statistically significant difference (X 2 = 5.44; P-value = 0.0196) in individual prevalence between the two Zones. Other epidemiological risk factors including age, sex, breed, and reproductive status of the animals were assessed for their contribution to the prevalence of the disease. Accordingly, a statistically significant (X 2 = 4.49, P-value = 0.0340) difference was found only between the type of animal breeds and their reactivity to the tuberculin test but not for other epidemiological factors. This study therefore, showed that bovine TB was present in Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia. This calls for a further detail study on farmers' awareness regarding its transmission and zoonotic potential; and the formulation of strategic control measures by the relevant animal health agencies to reduce the associated economic and zoonotic effects. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Bekele A.,Adama University | Bekele A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Alemu D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mishra M.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
International Journal of Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

Ethiopia is proximate to the Equator and receives adequate sunshine throughout the year, but the effective use of solar energy for large-scale applications is not yet adapted. This paper investigates the possible use of solar energy for large-scale water heating systems on the selected potential sites in the country. Global and diffuse radiations over the collector surfaces for all the selected sites are predicted from sunshine duration using numerical equations, and the transient analysis of the system is performed using a single glass cover flat plate collector solar water heater with riser and header type active system for a hot water supply temperature of 50°C. The total number of collectors, the size and number of storage tanks required and hot water temperature in the storage tank at each hour of a day and month of a year are also determined. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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