Asella, Ethiopia
Asella, Ethiopia

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Singh A.P.,Adama University | Anbumani K.,Eritrea Institute of Technology
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2011

Transesterified vegetable oils are being researched as alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, their higher viscosity is limiting their direct use in diesel engines. In this study, three vegetable oils (viz., mustard, karanja, and neem) were first transesterified using an alkaline catalyst. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of vegetable oil butyl esters and blends (10:90, 15:85, 20:80, and 25:75) with diesel oil were analysed in a direct compression ignition (C.I.) engine. Studies have revealed that on blending esterified vegetable oils with diesel a remarkable improvement in their physical and chemical properties took place. For studying the combustion properties of oil blends, engine was run at different loads at a constant speed. Studies have indicated that engine can be run at all the three oils, however 20% blend of oils showed a closer performance to pure diesel more so in case of 20% blend of karanja oil as a significant ificant (p〈0.05) reduction of particulate, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were observed compared to diesel. These studies have thus revealed that with the use of transesterified oils and their blends can be used to fuel diesel engine, which will reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and also help to decrease to a large extent environmental pollution. © Research India Publications.

Dinka H.,Adama University | Duressa A.,Asella Regional Veterinary Laboratory
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 625 animals (140 local Arsi cattle breeds and 485 of their crosses with pure Holstein Friesians) randomly selected from four districts of Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, using comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test. An overall individual animal prevalence of 12.16% was recorded under traditional animal husbandry system in the study area. The higher percentage of positiee results in tested animals was recorded in Arsi Zone (15.8%) and the lower percentage of positive results was found in the West Arsi Zone (8.9%). There was statistically significant difference (X 2 = 5.44; P-value = 0.0196) in individual prevalence between the two Zones. Other epidemiological risk factors including age, sex, breed, and reproductive status of the animals were assessed for their contribution to the prevalence of the disease. Accordingly, a statistically significant (X 2 = 4.49, P-value = 0.0340) difference was found only between the type of animal breeds and their reactivity to the tuberculin test but not for other epidemiological factors. This study therefore, showed that bovine TB was present in Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia. This calls for a further detail study on farmers' awareness regarding its transmission and zoonotic potential; and the formulation of strategic control measures by the relevant animal health agencies to reduce the associated economic and zoonotic effects. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Dinka H.,Adama University | Chala R.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Dawo F.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Leta S.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Bekana E.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Village chickens are found in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia but clear information is lacking regarding their socio-economic importance and production management in rift valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Therefore, in this study a total of 88 households rearing village chickens in rift valley of Oromia, were surveyed to get base line information on characteristics of households involved in village chicken production and utilization, feeding, reproductive and housing management of village chicken. The majority (92.4%) of the surveyed households said that village chicken production is accomplished by women and children. It was also shown that village chicken keepers in the study areas used chickens and their by products for home expenditure (44%), home consumption (24%), ceremony and/or sacrifice (22%) and as deposit (10%). Fifty percent of the respondents said the age at first egg is 24 to 28 weeks. The overall average flock size was 13 chickens per household (i.e., 12 local chickens and one exotic chicken per household). Even though, no village chicken producers formulate poultry feed in all the study areas 60% of them cultivate by themselves locally where in 90% of the cases maize, wheat, sorghum and household waste products are used as the main source of village chicken feed. Chickens were kept in cartoons and baskets made of bamboo or a round stick placed in the main house (58%) and perch (26.6%). In the present study, 81% of the households cleaned chickens houses once per day, and 14% twice per day. The survey also further showed that village chicken keepers in the study areas usually stimulated broody hens to lay eggs by changing their houses (30%), hanging their leg up down to fixed objects (21%) and providing additional feed (13%). Since village chickens play an important role in improving the livelihood of the families, there is a need to design and implement a research programme in order to improve their productivity in rift valley of Oromia, Ethiopia.

Nutto L.,Federal University of Paraná | Wirthu G.,Adama University
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung | Year: 2012

The Government of Ethiopia wants the country to achieve a 12% growth in its Gross Domestic Product by 2011. Since Ethiopia's economy is based mainly in the primary sector, agriculture and forestry play important roles. One of the main forestry-related problems, which must be resolved, is the low value aggregation on wood products. However, the population is highly dependent on wood as the only affordable energy source, and at the same time, there is a need to expand agricultural land for food production. Within this framework, the present study aims to analyse future wood supply and demand in Ethiopia. The changes in native forests and plantations are used to evaluate forest sustainability. Wood increment is estimated by data taken from available statistics and literature and is considered in the context of the Government's forestry action and afforestation plans. Wood consumption data are taken from official statistics {Tab. 1, Fig. 2) and forecasted using population growth (Fig. 1), proving a strong correlation. From the available forest areas and their productivity, future wood supply and demand in Ethiopia is derived (Fig. 1 and 3) and the country's potentials for higher value aggregated wood products, as it is a declared wish of the government, is evaluated.

Nurfeta A.,Hawassa University | Abdu Y.,Adama University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4 ± 0.74 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella + 25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella + 50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella + 75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P < 0.05), while sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P < 0.05) total crude protein (CP) intake was for sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility as compared with those fed T1, T2, and T6 diets. Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P > 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P < 0.05) average daily gain was for sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention, while those fed T6 diet had the lowest. The study has shown that a mixture diet consisting of equal parts of katikala atella and malt sprout (T3) are found to be superior in most of the required nutrient characteristics. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sahilu H.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Villafiorita A.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Weldemariam K.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Belachew M.,MCIT | Zewge A.,Adama University
Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, DEV 2012 | Year: 2012

In developing countries, agriculture is the largest livelihood provider. Nevertheless, the vast majority of gains by farmers are unsatisfactory despite the efforts put into the agriculture cost inputs. At present smallholder farmers, farmers associations, consumers, intermediaries and supporting organizations (e.g., extension agencies) are often unable to engage effectively in agricultural markets since these markets are prone to inefficiencies. Small and subsistence farmers in particular tend to have unfavorable linkages to markets due to a lack of market orientation. They continue to rely on market information supplied and verified through traditional word-of-mouth approach. Many producers and smaller intermediaries also lack experience to effectively utilize such market information to improve their well-being. © 2012 Authors.

Sreenivas V.,Adama University | Prathap M.,Adama University | Kemal M.,Adama University
2014 International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems, ICECS 2014 | Year: 2014

Cloud Computing is an emerging area in the field of information technology (IT). Load balancing is one of the main challenges in cloud computing. It is a technique which is required to distribute the dynamic workload across multiple nodes to ensure that no single node is overloaded. Load balancing techniques help in optimal utilization of resources and hence in enhancing the performance of the system. The goal of load balancing is to minimize the resource consumption which will further reduce energy consumption and carbon emission rate that is the dire need of cloud computing. This determines the need of new metrics, energy consumption and carbon emission for energy-efficient load balancing in cloud computing. This paper mainly focused on the concept of load balancing technique in cloud computing, the existing load balancing techniques and also discusses the different qualitative metrics or parameters like performance, scalability, associated overhead etc. © 2014 IEEE.

Bekele A.,Adama University | Bekele A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Alemu D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mishra M.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
International Journal of Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

Ethiopia is proximate to the Equator and receives adequate sunshine throughout the year, but the effective use of solar energy for large-scale applications is not yet adapted. This paper investigates the possible use of solar energy for large-scale water heating systems on the selected potential sites in the country. Global and diffuse radiations over the collector surfaces for all the selected sites are predicted from sunshine duration using numerical equations, and the transient analysis of the system is performed using a single glass cover flat plate collector solar water heater with riser and header type active system for a hot water supply temperature of 50°C. The total number of collectors, the size and number of storage tanks required and hot water temperature in the storage tank at each hour of a day and month of a year are also determined. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Zewge A.,Adama University | Weldemariam K.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Hailemariam S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Villafiorita A.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems, MEDES 2012 | Year: 2012

Access to agricultural information services is vital to improve the livelihood of farmers in many directions specifically in the developing countries. There are several requirements for these services most of which stem from the nature and livelihood of involved stakeholders. Though various systems have been put to use so far, most failed to integrate these stakeholders in their requirement elicitation and design strategies. This paper uses a goal-oriented approach to provide an exhaustive view on the domain from specific design ideas to abstract requirements. The approach allows us to consider alternatives when developing novel services and to balance the impact that each design space can have on functional requirements of the system to-be. The analysis and design process took a bottom-up approach that starts from field study to the use of goal-oriented approach for the analysis and designing of requirements for the system to-be. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

Demsis A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Demsis A.,Adama University | Prabhu S.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Agrawal A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2010

In this paper, the measurement of friction factor in gas with slip at the wall is presented; these are made to encompass the following aspects: change in pipe material, pipe wall roughness, and channel geometry, for various gases. Two different wall materials (stainless steel and copper), three different grades of roughness, and two wall geometries (circular and square) are considered in this study. The gases employed in this investigation are nitrogen, oxygen and argon. The ranges of Knudsen number and Reynolds numbers covered in this study are 0.0022-0.024 and 0.54-13.2, respectively. The experimental setup is validated by comparing the friction factor close to the continuum and slip flow regimes for nitrogen against available results in the literature. The experimental results suggest that the friction factor is affected by the wall roughness and geometry of cross-section, in addition to the amount of rarefaction. However, the effect of changing the gas or pipe material is minimal. A correlation for slip flow in square duct is also proposed. This is one of the first such detailed studies and has implications for both gas flow in microchannels and rarefied gas in large pipes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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