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Adam Opel AG is a German automobile manufacturer headquartered in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany, and a subsidiary of General Motors Company. The company designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles and vehicle parts for distribution in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. Opel designed and manufactured vehicles are also sold under the Buick brand in the United States, Canada, Mexico and China, the Holden brand in Australia and New Zealand and the Vauxhall brand in the United Kingdom.Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862. The company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899.Opel became a share-limited company in 1929; United States-based General Motors took a majority stake in Opel that same year. General Motors assumed full control in 1931 and today Adam Opel AG is a wholly owned subsidiary of General Motors Company. Although Adam Opel AG continues to be a share-limited company, shares of the company are not publicly listed. Adam Opel AG is the parent company of General Motors UK Limited, better known as Vauxhall, and various other General Motors subsidiaries.During the 1970s and 1980s, Opel and Vauxhall ranges were rationalised into one consistent range across Europe. Wikipedia.

Matthe R.,General Motors | Turner L.,General Motors | Mettlach H.,Adam Opel AG
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2011

Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with "no compromised performance" for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles. Multiple factors helped refine a requirement of at least 8 kWh usable energy, and 115 kW discharge power over the applied battery state of charge range. The Chevrolet Volt vehicle is based on GM's global compact vehicle platform. Aggressive targets for mass, volume, and timing have been considered for impact beyond start of production (4Q2010). A battery cell providing both, very high energy density and high power density at the same time had to be developed and validated applying the latest Li-Ion technology. Integration into the car should allow for good aerodynamics, provide the best crash protection and have low impact on customer useable space. The battery must also be able to perform in all typical automotive atmospheric conditions. An inter-cell thermal system was sized and balanced, to efficiently manage temperatures within the battery and help lengthen battery life. New tests and methods had been developed for battery systems development in the lab, in the vehicle and in models. Data and examples will be shared. Specific vehicle/battery test activities will be introduced. Finally performance results demonstrating the characteristic(s) of the system will be shown. © 2011 SAE International. Source

Michler T.,Adam Opel AG | Balogh M.P.,General Motors
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

The microstructure and the effects of 10 MPa hydrogen atmosphere on the tensile properties of a oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel were investigated. The microstructure consists of a fine grained ferritic matrix with Me3O4 (Me = Cr, Fe or Mn), VN and Cr23C6 grain boundary precipitates as well as dispersed yttrium oxide nano precipitates in the ferritic matrix. The yield and ultimate tensile strength were unaffected by the H2 atmosphere whereas elongation at fracture and reduction in area were markedly reduced. In H2 atmosphere, the fracture morphology was found to be a mixture of intergranular H-assisted fracture and a smaller amount of transgranular hydrogen enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) fracture. The sensitivity of the ODS RAF steel to hydrogen embrittlement is attributed to the large number grain boundary precipitates which enhance the tendency for intergranular fracture. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source

Michler T.,Adam Opel AG | Naumann J.,BMW AG
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Cr-Mn-N austenitic steels show a unique combination of properties, i.e. high strength, high ductility, non magnetic and good corrosion resistance at costs being much lower compared to Cr-Ni austenitic steels. Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) was investigated by slow displacement tensile testing in hydrogen atmosphere at 10 MPa and -50 °C. The fracture appearance of stable Cr-Mn-N austenitic steels with lower Mn contents (12Mn-0.7N) was transgranular whereas higher Mn contents (18Mn-0.7N) resulted in twin boundary fracture. This change in fracture morphology was related to a modest change in macroscopic ductility. Such fracture behaviour is similar to what is known from metastable Cr-Ni austenitic steels, therefore, Mn and/or N cannot be used to replace Ni in stable austenitic high HEE resistant steels. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source

Michler T.,Adam Opel AG | Naumann J.,BMW AG
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Several commercial bcc steels with various combinations of ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic microstructures were tensile tested in gaseous hydrogen (10 MPa) at room temperature. Fractography of all bcc/bct steels tested in gaseous hydrogen showed clear indications of hydrogen assisted fracture morphology. Comparing these results with those of austenitic stainless steels, it can be assumed that hydrogen enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) is also the primary failure mechanism in all bcc microstructures (ferritic, ferritic/pearlitic, bainitic, martensitic) investigated here. Neither strength nor final grain size nor prior austenite grain size were identified as sole primary factors influencing hydrogen embrittlement. The only steel with a negligible loss in macroscopic ductility was a precipitation hardenable grade indicating that incorporating irreversible traps might be a successful way to reduce the susceptibility of bcc steels to hydrogen embrittlement. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source

Michler T.,Adam Opel AG | Naumann J.,BMW AG | Sattler E.,University of Stuttgart
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2013

Load controlled S-N fatigue tests (R = 0.1, 1 Hz, notched cylindrical specimen with kt = 3.4) in the low cycle fatigue regime in hydrogen and helium gas atmospheres (10 MPa, room temperature and -50 °C) were performed on two austenitic stainless steels (SS) with nickel contents of 11.4 and 12.7 wt.%, respectively. At room temperature the 11.4Ni SS showed a considerable reduction in total fatigue life at high stress amplitudes which mitigates with decreasing stress amplitudes. Striation analysis showed that the growth of stage I and stage II cracks is accelerated in hydrogen atmosphere compared to helium atmosphere. For the 12.7Ni SS no significant difference between the fatigue lives in hydrogen and helium was found verifying the positive effect of higher nickel concentrations also in fatigue life tests. At -50 °C, both steels showed a reduction in total fatigue life. Comparing the loss of fatigue strength to the loss of tensile reduction of area revealed a much higher severity of hydrogen on the loss of tensile RA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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