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Saint Paul, MN, United States

Chai S.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | White P.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lathrop S.L.,University of New Mexico | Solghan S.M.,New York State Department of Health | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Background.Salmonella enterica causes an estimated 1 million cases of domestically acquired foodborne illness in humans annually in the United States; Enteritidis (SE) is the most common serotype. Public health authorities, regulatory agencies, food producers, and food processors need accurate information about rates and changes in SE infection to implement and evaluate evidence-based control policies and practices.Methods.We analyzed the incidence of human SE infection during 1996-2009 in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), an active, population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed infections. We compared FoodNet incidence with passively collected data from complementary surveillance systems and with rates of SE isolation from processed chickens and egg products; shell eggs are not routinely tested. We also compared molecular subtyping patterns of SE isolated from humans and chickens.Results.Since the period 1996-1999, the incidence of human SE infection in FoodNet has increased by 44%. This change is mirrored in passive national surveillance data. The greatest relative increases were in young children, older adults, and FoodNet sites in the southern United States. The proportion of patients with SE infection who reported recent international travel has decreased in recent years, whereas the proportion of chickens from which SE was isolated has increased. Similar molecular subtypes of SE are commonly isolated from humans and chickens.Conclusions.Most SE infections in the United States are acquired from domestic sources, and the problem is growing. Chicken and eggs are likely major sources of SE. Continued close attention to surveillance data is needed to monitor the impact of recent regulatory control measures. © 2012 The Author. Source

Vasoo S.,Mayo Medical School | Schwab J.J.,Mayo Medical School | Cunningham S.A.,Mayo Medical School | Robinson T.J.,Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable Campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. Joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but PCR of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. Nineteen additional cases of Campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Lappi V.,Public Health Laboratory | Archer J.R.,Bureau of Communicable Diseases and Emergency Response | Cebelinski E.,Public Health Laboratory | Leano F.,Public Health Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Background: Arcobacter species, primarily Arcobacter butzleri, are widely distributed among animals, infrequently isolated from humans, and previously not associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. We report results of an investigation of a foodborne outbreak that occurred among attendees of a wedding reception in Wisconsin, United States, and was likely caused by A. butzleri. Methods: We conducted a case-control study among reception attendees and a laboratory investigation to determine the extent, source, and cause of the outbreak. A clinical case was defined as diarrhea in an attendee with illness onset ≤7 days following the wedding reception. Results: The case-control study included 47 of 51 case patients and 43 non-ill attendees. Results demonstrated that consuming broasted chicken was the only factor significantly associated with illness (odds ratio 10.51; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 476.4). Five patients provided stool specimens. Comprehensive culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing did not detect common bacterial or viral pathogens. Subsequent testing with PCRs targeting 16S/23S rDNA of the three most clinically relevant Arcobacter spp. and the rpoB/C gene of A. butzleri provided products confirmed as A. butzleri (four patients) and A. cryaerophilus (one patient) by sequence analysis. Conclusions: The results of this investigation suggest that A. butzleri should be considered an agent that can cause outbreaks of foodborne illness. Rigorous investigation of outbreaks of undetermined etiology is valuable for incrementally increasing our understanding of emerging agents causing foodborne illnesses. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Hedican E.,Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section | Miller B.,Dairy and Food Inspection Division | Ziemer B.,Minnesota Board of Animal Health | Lemaster P.,Field Services Section | And 3 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Scheftel J.M.,Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section | Griffith J.M.,Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section | Leppke B.A.,Shady Oak Veterinary Clinic | Pantlin G.C.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health

The 2008 case presented here of tularaemia in a cat and its owner occurred in an urban setting and was associated with animal contact, a relatively rare mode of transmission in Minnesota in recent years. Response to this case exemplified a 'One Health' approach involving pre-existing relationships, cooperation between multiple disciplines and laboratory infrastructure that facilitated information sharing. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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