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Vallabhaneni S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cleveland A.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Farley M.M.,Emory University | Farley M.M.,Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background. Echinocandins are first-line treatment for Candida glabrata candidemia. Echinocandin resistance is concerning due to limited remaining treatment options. We used data from a multisite, population-based surveillance program to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for echinocandin nonsusceptible (NS) C glabrata candidemia. Methods. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program conducts populationbased laboratory surveillance for candidemia in 4 metropolitan areas (7.9 million persons; 80 hospitals). We identified C glabrata cases occurring during 2008-2014; medical records of cases were reviewed, and C glabrata isolates underwent broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing. We defined echinocandin-NS C glabrata (intermediate or resistant) based on 2012 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints. Independent risk factors for NS C glabrata were determined by stepwise logistic regression. Results. Of 1385 C glabrata cases, 83 (6.0%) had NS isolates (19 intermediate and 64 resistant); the proportion of NS isolates rose from 4.2% in 2008 to 7.8% in 2014 (P <.001). The proportion of NS isolates at each hospital ranged from 0% to 25.8%; 3 large, academic hospitals accounted for almost half of all NS isolates. In multivariate analysis, prior echinocandin exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6-1.2), previous candidemia episode (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1), hospitalization in the last 90 days (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5, and fluconazole resistance [aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4]) were significantly associated with NS C glabrata. Fifty-nine percent of NS C glabrata cases had no known prior echinocandin exposure. Conclusion. The proportion of NS C glabrata isolates rose significantly during 2008-2014, and NS C glabrata frequency differed across hospitals. In addition to acquired resistance resulting from prior drug exposure, occurrence of NS C glabrata without prior echinocandin exposure suggests possible transmission of resistant organisms.


Garrison L.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Snippes Vagnone P.M.,Public Health Laboratory | Thompson J.H.,Acute and Communicable Disease Prevention | Thomas S.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2014

We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts. © 2014 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

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