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Levy C.,Pediatric Infectious Disease Group | Levy C.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal Of Creteil | Varon E.,National Reference Center for Pneumococci | Picard C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important cause of bacterial meningitis in children younger than 2 years. Here, we analyzed data from an active surveillance network established 12 years ago by the Pediatric infectious Disease group and the Pediatric Clinical and Therapeutical association to analyze the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 implemented in 2002 and PCV13 in 2010) on pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Methods: Two hundred twenty-seven pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology departments throughout France were asked to report all cases of PM. Results: From 2001 to 2012, among 4808 bacterial meningitis cases, 1406 cases of PM (29.2%) were reported. after PCV13 implementation, from 2009 to 2012, the number of cases significantly decreased by 27.4% (P = 0.041, Cuzick trend test). For children younger than 2 years, the decrease was 28.2% (P = 0.039, Cuzick trend test). in the same period, the decrease was 66.7% in cases due to 6 additional PCV13 types, and the number of cases due to nonvaccine types remained stable. in 2012, the non-PCV13 serotype represented 67.6% of cases and were mainly represented by 12F (15%), 24F (15%), 22F (7%) and 15B/C (7%). For 88.6% of cases, initial antibiotic treatment was vancomycin with a third-generation cephalosporin. Overall mortality was 10.6%, most deaths (86.4%) occurred before day 15. Conclusions: Two years after the PCV13 implementation, we found an impact on PM cases particularly for children younger than 2 years. Copyright © 2014 by lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


« Toyota restructures; product-based instead of function-based | Main | Škoda showcases MQB-based plug-in hybrid VisionS concept at Geneva; production PHEV in 2019, followed by BEV » Mazda North American Operations released EPA-estimated fuel economy figures for its all-new 2016 Mazda CX-9. Certified at an EPA-estimated 22 mpg city/28 mpg highway/25 mpg combined, when equipped with front-wheel drive, the 2016 CX-9 achieves best-in-class (MY 2016 midsize, three-row, non-hybrid crossover SUVs for sale in the US) city and combined fuel economy ratings and class-leading highway fuel economy. The second-generation CX-9’s efficiency reflect a 32% improvement compared to its predecessor. (In Canada, NR Canada estimates of fuel consumption put the improvement at 35%.) Like Mazda’s entire lineup of 2016 cars and crossovers, the 2016 CX-9 has adopted efficient, lightweight SKYACTIV Technology. Similar to the 2016 MX-5 Miata with its 29% improvement in EPA-estimated fuel economy versus its predecessor, the CX-9 benefits from a significant weight reduction, yet it adds amenities and provides more agile handling dynamics and improved performance. At the heart of the 2016 CX-9 is its new SKYACTIV-G 2.5T engine, which produces the power of a V-6 engine without the fuel-efficiency penalty. SKYACTIV-G 2.5T is the first turbocharged engine in the SKYACTIV-G series. CX-9’s engine delivers 310 lb-ft (420 N·m) of torque—comparable with a naturally aspirated 4-liter gasoline engine—from just 2,000 rpm and 250 hp (186 kW) at 5,000 rpm using 93-octane gasoline (227 hp with 87-octane). It comes paired with a six-speed SKYACTIV-Drive automatic transmission. Traditionally, turbocharged engines have suffered from poor dynamic performance at low rpm, including turbo lag, and disappointing real-world fuel economy. SKYACTIV-G 2.5T overcomes these problems with the Dynamic Pressure Turbo, the first turbocharging system that can vary the degree of exhaust pulsation depending on engine speed, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system that allows the engine to maintain the ideal air-fuel ratio (λ=1) over a wider output range. High compression ratio. Mazda engineers achieved a compression ratio 10.5:1, one of the highest for any turbocharged engine with an 89-mm bore size that can run on regular gasoline. Dynamic Pressure Turbo. SKYACTIV-G 2.5T is the first turbocharged engine with the ability to change the degree of exhaust pulsation depending on engine speed. At low rpm (below 1620 rpm), the volume of the exhaust ports is reduced by closing a series of valves located just before the turbine that drives the turbocharger. This reduces interference between exhaust pulses and maximizes the energy of each pulse to obtain a high turbine driving force. At higher rpm, there is sufficient energy in the exhaust flow and the valves open, allowing the turbine to be driven by a steady flow of exhaust gases as in a traditional turbocharger. Whereas existing variable turbochargers adjust the speed or direction of exhaust gas flowing into the turbine, Dynamic Pressure Turbo is a unique technology that varies the degree of exhaust pulsation. Further assisting CX-9 to maximize turbocharger efficiency is a 4-3-1 exhaust. With this setup, the exhaust from the middle two cylinders (2 and 3) is joined into a single port, while the exhausts from the outer cylinders (1 and 4) each have their own ports. These three ports come together at the entrance to the turbocharger’s exhaust side, where there is always one exhaust pulse arriving every 180 degrees of crankshaft rotation. Not only does this very compact manifold keeps the exhaust pulses separate for maximum energy extraction, it also harnesses each exhaust pulse to suck the residual exhaust from the adjacent ports. Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This system takes some of the inert exhaust gas that results from the combustion process and reduces its temperature by passing it through a cooler before introducing it back into the engine’s air intake. This lowers the temperature of combustion in the engine from approximately 500 ˚C (932 ˚F) to just over 100 ˚C (212 ˚F), preventing knocking, expanding the range in which the engine can maintain the ideal air-fuel ratio and reducing the need to retard ignition timing. SKYACTIV-G principals of efficient combustion. SKYACTIV-G 2.5T is based on the naturally aspirated SKYACTIV-G 2.5 and features the same bore, stroke and bore pitch. Parts of the fuel system, such as the fuel pump and fuel injection system are also shared, helping SKYACTIV-G 2.5T to achieve the efficient combustion for which SKYACTIV-G engines are known. Front-wheel drive is standard, and Mazda’s predictive i-ACTIV all-wheel drive is optionally available. i-ACTIV all-wheel drive sends power where it’s needed before the driver can sense a loss in traction by measuring road and vehicle conditions more than 200 times per second via 27 sensors. Due to its lightweight design, i-ACTIV all-wheel drive adds little mechanical friction. The 2016 Mazda CX-9 will go on sale in late spring 2016. Final packaging and pricing will be announced closer to its on-sale date.


LA JOLLA, Calif., Feb. 22, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- ActivX Biosciences, Inc.®, a wholly owned subsidiary of Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Tokyo), announces the appointment of Professor Hugh Rosen of The Scripps Research Institute to the position of Chairman & President of ActivX®, effective April 1, 2017. He will succeed John W. Kozarich who has been at ActivX since 2001, serving as Chairman & President since its acquisition by Kyorin in 2004. John will stay on at ActivX as a Board Director and assume the new position of Distinguished Scientist and Executive Advisor. Professor Rosen’s 30+ year career in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and academic sectors has been one of significant achievements. Following training in medicine in Cape Town, he received his D.Phil. as a Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 Scholar at the University of Oxford.  He spent 11 years at Merck Research Laboratories before becoming a Professor at TSRI (The Scripps Research Institute) in 2002. There he co-invented ozanimod and was a scientific founder of Receptos, acquired by Celgene in 2015 for $7.3 Billion, as well as BlackThorn Therapeutics, which recently closed a $40M Series A. He serves as an independent Board member at Regulus Therapeutics and will remain on the faculty of TSRI. “Hugh Rosen is a world-class translational physician/scientist and biotechnology entrepreneur,” explained Dr. Kozarich. “We are delighted that he will assume the leadership of ActivX, building on our R&D contributions to Kyorin and adding new dimensions to our cutting-edge KiNativ technology. Hugh has been a friend and colleague to me and to Kyorin for 25 years. I am honored to have him as my successor and look forward to working with him in my new role. Hugh’s appointment clearly signals Kyorin’s ongoing commitment to ActivX as a key component to their future success. This is an ideal outcome for all involved.” Dr. Rosen added that: “The opportunity to lead ActivX Biosciences is especially attractive to a physician-scientist with a record of success in drug discovery and development because the ActivX technologies have unlocked exciting and potentially transforming drug discovery opportunities. This is a tribute to the outstanding work of John Kozarich and colleagues at both ActivX and Kyorin.  I look forward to continuing to work with John, his management team and Kyorin to bring significant new products forward to benefit patient outcomes, caregivers and providers. Through discovery and development, we strive to improve the public health.” Mr. Minoru Hogawa, Representative Director, President and Chief Executive Officer of Kyorin Holdings Inc., commented that: “Kyorin has been and will be creating first-in-class medicines. ActivX Biosciences is the core member for our research group activities. We believe Dr. Rosen will accelerate our research programs and accomplish our goals effectively with his wide experience.” ActivX Biosciences, Inc.® (www.activx.com ) located in La Jolla, California, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tokyo-based Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and has drug discovery and proteomics technology capabilities. The company applies proprietary chemical technologies and high-throughput protein analysis to the drug discovery and development process. By focusing on functional proteins, ActivX® addresses disease mechanisms directly, in contrast to approaches such as expression profiling, in which the measured analyte is several steps removed from the site of drug action. ActivX and its partners utilize ActivX’s proprietary technology and profiling platform (KiNativ® - www.kinativ.com ) to address critical challenges in kinase drug discovery, including selectivity profiling of candidate drug molecules in biological samples to guide their medicinal chemistry efforts. The KiNativ platform aids in the identification of novel drug targets and biomarkers, the determination of target engagement in vivo and the characterization of off-target activities of candidate and established drugs to understand the basis of their efficacy and/or toxicity. About Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Trusted among patients and professionals in the medical industry, Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (http://www.kyorin-pharm.co.jp/en/), which is a core company of Kyorin Holdings Inc. (http://www.kyorin-gr.co.jp/en/), strives to be a company that contributes to the public health and is recognized as a one with social significance by improving its presence in specified therapeutic areas and through global discovery of novel drugs. Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. uses its franchise customer strategy in the developing and marketing ethical drugs on the core areas of respiratory, otolaryngology and urology.


PubMed | Lyon University Hospital Center, ACTIV, Lille University of Science and Technology, Nantes University Hospital Center and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of disease in childhood | Year: 2016

The incidence of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is increasing worldwide, whereas there has been a dramatic decrease in pneumococcal invasive diseases. Few data describing GAS pleural empyema in children are available.To describe the clinical and microbiological features, management and outcome of GAS pleural empyema in children and compare them with those of pneumococcal empyema.Fifty children admitted for GAS pleural empyema between January 2006 and May 2013 to 8 hospitals participating in a national pneumonia survey were included in a descriptive study and matched by age and centre with 50 children with pneumococcal empyema.The median age of the children with GAS pleural empyema was 2 (range 0.1-7.6) years. Eighteen children (36%) had at least one risk factor for invasive GAS infection (corticosteroid use and/or current varicella). On admission, 37 patients (74%) had signs of circulatory failure, and 31 (62%) had a rash. GAS was isolated from 49/50 pleural fluid samples and from one blood culture. The commonest GAS genotype was emm1 (n=17/22). Two children died (4%). Children with GAS empyema presented more frequently with a rash (p<0.01), signs of circulatory failure (p=0.01) and respiratory disorders (p=0.02) and with low leucocyte levels (p=0.04) than children with pneumococcal empyema. Intensive care unit admissions (p<0.01), drainage procedures (p=0.04) and short-term complications (p=0.01) were also more frequent in patients with GAS empyema.Pleural empyema following varicella or presenting with rash, signs of circulatory failure and leucopenia may be due to GAS. These features should prompt the addition to treatment of an antitoxin drug, such as clindamycin.


Cohen R.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal Of Creteil | Levy C.,ACTIV | Bonnet E.,Laboratoire Wyeth Pharmaceuticals | Grondin S.,CNRP | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

To determine whether the use of seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) caused a shift in the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and whether it modified the resistance to antibiotics, 3291 nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained between 2001 and 2006, from children aged 6-24 months with acute otitis media. Following the implementation of PCV7, we observed a slight reduction in the overall pneumococcal carriage, a marked decrease of vaccine serotypes, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes carriage and a reduction in the carriage of penicillin non-susceptible strains. Most of the serotype 19A replacement was related to the clonal expansion of ST276 which was found to be the predominant ST among penicillin non-susceptible isolates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Cohen R.,ACTIV | Bingen E.,University Paris Diderot | Levy C.,ACTIV | Thollot F.,AFPA Association Francaise de Pediatrie Ambulatoire | And 3 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France.Methods: Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies.Results: We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001).Conclusion: The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp. © 2012 Cohen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cohen R.,CHI Creteil | Levy C.,ACTIV | Bonnet E.,Pfizer | Thollot F.,AFPA | And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: After the implementation of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), in several countries, serotype 19A is now the serotype most frequently involved in pneumococcal diseases and carriage. To determine factors potentially related to 19A nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage we analyzed data from an ongoing prospective French national surveillance study of pneumococcal NP carriage in young children.Methods: NP swabs were obtained from children aged 6 to 24 months, either during routine check-ups with normal findings, or when they presented with acute otitis media (AOM). The swabs were sent for analysis to the French National Reference Centre for Pneumococci. Factors influencing pneumococcal carriage and carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP), 19A and PNS-19A were investigated by multivariate logistic regression.Results: From 2006 to 2009, 66 practitioners enrolled 3507 children (mean age 13.6 months), of whom, 98.3% of children had been vaccinated with PCV7 and 33.4% of children attended daycare centres (DCC). Serotype 19A was found in 10.4% of the overall population, 20.5% of S. pneumoniae carriers (n = 1780) and 40.8% of PNSP carriers (n = 799). Among 19A strains, 10.7% were penicillin-susceptible, 80% intermediate and 9.3% fully resistant. Logistic regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with PNSP carriage were AOM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI [2.39;3.98]), DCC (OR = 1.70, 95% CI [1.42;2.03]), and recent antibiotic use (OR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.05;1.47]. The main factors predictive of 19A carriage were recent antibiotic use (OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.42;2.30]), AOM (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.11;2.49]), DCC (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.21;2.2] and young age, <12 months (OR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.16;1.97]).Conclusion: In a population of children aged from 6 to 24 months with a high rate of PCV7 vaccination coverage, we found that antibiotic exposure, DCC attendance and AOM were linked to 19A carriage. © 2011 Cohen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mizrahi A.,University of Paris Descartes | Cohen R.,ACTIV | Varon E.,University of Paris Descartes | Bonacorsi S.,University Paris Diderot | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NT-Hi) infection is frequently associated with acute otitis media (AOM) treatment failure, recurrence or chronic otitis media. Persistence of otopathogens in a biofilm-structured community was implicated in these situations. Here, we compared biofilm production by H. influenzae strains obtained by culture of middle ear fluid (MEF) from children with AOM treatment failure and by strains isolated from nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from healthy children or those with AOM (first episode or recurrence). We aimed to evaluate an association of clinical signs and in vitro biofilm formation and establish risk factors of carrying a biofilm-producing strain. Methods: We used a modification of the microtiter plate assay with crystal violet staining to compare biofilm production by 216 H. influenzae strains: 41 in MEF from children with AOM treatment failure (group MEF), 43 in NP samples from healthy children (NP group 1), 88 in NP samples from children with a first AOM episode (NP group 2, n = 43) or recurrent (NP group 3, n = 45) and 44 in NP samples from children with AOM associated with conjunctivitis (NP group 4). Results: At all, 106/216 (49%) H. influenzae strains produced biofilm as did 26/43 (60.5%) in NP samples from healthy children. Biofilm production in MEF samples and NP samples did not significantly differ (40.5% vs 60.5%, 55.8%, 56.8% and 31.1% for NP groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only presence of conjunctivitis was significantly associated with low biofilm production (OR = 0.3, CI [0.16-0.60], p = 0.001). The ampicillin resistance of H. influenzae produced by penicillin-binding protein modification was significantly associated with low biofilm production (p = 0.029). Conclusion: We found no association of biofilm production and AOM treatment failure or recurrence. Biofilm production was low from H. influenzae strains associated with conjunctivitis-otitis sbinding protein. © Mizrahi et al.;


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

LOS ANGELES, Feb. 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Activ4pets, providers of online and mobile platforms that give pet parents easy access to their pet's health information along with web-based veterinary consultations, today announced its new shelter partnership program to provide their platform...


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« GM makes its largest green energy purchase to date; 50 MW wind deal | Main | Toyota to establish in-house venture company for EV development » Mazda Motor Corporation unveiled the all-new Mazda CX-5 crossover SUV. The fully redesigned model, on display at AutoMobility LA, will be launched in Japan in February before being rolled out to global markets. The global powertrain lineup comprises the SKYACTIV-G 2.0 and 2.5 gasoline, and SKYACTIV-D 2.2 diesel engines. Mazda announced it will offer the SKYACTIV-D diesel in North America from the second half of 2017. This will be Mazda’s first diesel engine model in the North American market. The CX-5 also adopts G-Vectoring Control, the first of the SKYACTIV-VEHICLE DYNAMICS vehicle motion control technologies. (Earlier post.) Launched in 2012, the CX-5 was the first new-generation model featuring SKYACTIV technology and KODO design. It has since grown into a core model that is sold in more than 120 countries and accounts for approximately one quarter of Mazda’s global sales volume. It has won around 90 awards worldwide, including 2012-2013 Japan Car of the Year. The engines in the new CX-5 are paired with either the six-speed SKYACTIV-DRIVE automatic or six-speed SKYACTIV-MT manual transmission. Also available is Mazda’s predictive i-ACTIV AWD system, which helps prevent the front wheels from slipping. The system employs synthetic oil that reduces energy losses throughout its operating temperature range by maintaining its low viscosity, even in extremely cold temperatures. It also reduces resistance by adopting ball bearings for all its power take-off and rear differential unit bearings. G-Vectoring Control adjusts engine torque in response to steering wheel action to deliver unified control over lateral and longitudinal acceleration (G) forces and optimizes the vertical load on each wheel. GVC is particularly effective in SUVs, which can be prone to generating lateral forces due to their relatively high center of gravity. It achieves high levels of both vehicle responsiveness and stability, while also helping to reduce sideways sliding of the cabin occupants’ bodies and deliver a comfortable ride. In addition to using a column-type electric power steering system, the new CX-5 adopts rigid steering mounts that heighten its linearity and steering rigidity. The new CX-5 suspension system uses MacPherson struts in the front and a multi-link system in the rear. Increasing the diameter of the front damper pistons and adopting liquid filled bushings for the front suspension suppresses the floating sensation experienced by the driver and the unpleasant vibrations all cabin occupants feel when the vehicle is subjected to roll. The brake system employs ventilated discs in the front and solid discs in the rear. The new CX-5 also newly adopts Mazda’s Auto-hold function, which keeps the car stopped even after the driver lifts their foot off the brake pedal. In the body, a 15.5% increase in torsional rigidity over the previous model reduces flexing that might otherwise slow response to the driver’s steering actions. Increased application of ultra-high-tensile steel includes the adoption of 1,180MPa steel on the A-pillars and 980MPa steel on the side sills and B-pillars. NVH. To realize a quiet cabin environment that enables occupants to enjoy stress-free conversation while driving, Mazda put particular effort into reducing low-frequency road noise heard when traveling on roads with coarse surfaces, as well as high-frequency wind and tire noise heard when traveling at higher speeds. Compared to the previous model at a cruising speed of 100km/h (62mph), the new CX-5 achieves approximately 10% clearer conversation levels within the cabin and reduces noise by approximately 1.3dB when traveling on rough road surfaces. Aerodynamic parts strategically positioned on the body where they will be most effective and duct-shaped openings within the front grille realize excellent aerodynamic performance. Further evolved i-ACTIVSENSE. Mazda Proactive Safety is a comprehensive approach to maximizing the range of conditions in which the driver can operate the vehicle safely and with greater confidence. It aims to help support true driving pleasure for every customer. Newly added active safety functions and features enable Mazda’s i-ACTIVSENSE advanced safety technologies to lend yet greater assistance to the driver in identifying potential risks early on, and to reduce chances of damage or injury. This includes the introduction of new technologies for supporting awareness and safer driving. Enhancements to the passive safety features include improved efficiency of the multi-load path structure on Mazda’s high-strength SKYACTIV-BODY, and increased use of ultra-high-tensile steel. The new CX-5 is equipped with the latest evolution of Mazda Radar Cruise Control (MRCC), which can follow the vehicle ahead from a standing stop, and with Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR), which reads speed limit and other road signs and displays the sign’s message on the Active Driving Display. The SKYACTIV-BODY effectively absorbs and disperses impact force to suppress cabin deformation. In addition, the strengthened A-pillar section and expanded use of high-strength materials reduces weight and achieves a higher level of collision safety. A complement of safety equipment and features helps provide reassurance in the event of a collision. Adding polypropylene foam to the inside of the headrests and optimizing the mounting method for the seatback frame improves the head impact mitigating structure of the front seats. Structures under the hood and in the front bumper help mitigate injury to a pedestrian’s head or legs.

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