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Iyengar K.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2012

The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia-7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women- 9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery. Source

Iyengar K.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH | Iyengar K.,Karolinska Institutet | Pelto P.,University of Connecticut | Iyengar S.D.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2016

Although more maternal deaths occur in the postpartum period, this period receives far less attention from the program managers. To understand how the women and their families perceive postpartum health problems, the culturally derived restrictions, and precautions controlling diets and behavior patterns, we conducted a mixed-method study in Rajasthan, India. The study methods included free listing of maternal morbidity conditions, interviews with 81 recently delivered women, case interviews with eight cases of huwa rog (postpartum illness), and interviews with nine key informants. The study showed that huwa rog refers to a broad category of serious postpartum illness, thought to affect women a few weeks to several months after delivery. Prevention of the illness involves a system of precautions referred to as parhej, which includes a distinctive set of "medicinal dietary items" referred to as desi dawai, or "country medicine," and restrictions about mobility and work patterns of a postpartum woman. This cultural framework around the concept of huwa rog and peoples' beliefs about it are of central importance for planning postpartum health interventions, including place of contact and communication messages. © SAGE Publications. Source

Iyengar K.,Karolinska University Hospital | Iyengar K.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH | Klingberg-Allvin M.,Karolinska University Hospital | Klingberg-Allvin M.,Dalarna University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Introduction Although home use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is considered to be safe, effective and feasible, it has not become standard service delivery practice. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of home use of misoprostol with clinic misoprostol in a low-resource setting. Material and methods This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted in six primary care clinics in India. Women seeking medical abortion within up to nine gestational weeks (n = 731) received mifepristone in the clinic and were allocated either to home or clinic administration of misoprostol. Follow-up contact was after 10-15 days. Results Of 731 participants, 73% were from rural areas and 55% had no formal education. Complete abortion rates in the home and clinic misoprostol groups were 94.2 and 94.4%, respectively. The rate of adverse events was similar in both groups (0.3%). A greater proportion of home users (90.2%) said that they would opt for misoprostol at home in the event of a future abortion compared with clinic users (79.7%) who would opt for misoprostol at the clinic in a similar situation (p = 0.0002). Ninety-six percent women using misoprostol at home or in the clinic were satisfied with their abortion experience. Conclusions Home-use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is as effective and acceptable as clinic use, in low resource settings. Women should be offered a choice of this option regardless of distance of their residence from the clinic and communication facilities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Source

Fiore-Silfvast B.,University of Washington | Hartung C.,University of Washington | Iyengar K.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH | Iyengar S.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, DEV 2013 | Year: 2013

The study presented in this paper demonstrates how nurse midwives used video on mobile phones to support patient education in a maternal and child health project in rural India. The main goals of the study were to understand how the technology impacted the workflow of the nurses and to assess the acceptability of the use of video during patient encounters. The study was based on interviews of the midwives, observation of patient visits, and an analysis of logs from the mobile devices. The overall results were positive; the midwives accepted use of mobile video as part of the workflow for postnatal care examinations. Using video changed the process of patient education, in some cases making it a more focused activity. The use of video also led to midwife multitasking, which was enabled by the technology. The study suggests that the midwives felt that their authority was enhanced by the use of video. Copyright © 2013 ACM. Source

Iyengar K.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH | Yadav R.,Community Empowerment Laboratory | Sen S.,Action Research and Training for Health ARTH
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Maternal complications are common during and following childbirth. However, little information is available on the psychological, social and economic consequences of maternal complications on women's lives, especially in a rural setting. A prospective cohort study was conducted in southern Rajasthan, India, among rural women who had a severe or less-severe, or no complication at the time of delivery or in the immediate postpartum period. In total, 1,542 women, representing 93% of all women who delivered in the field area over a 15-month period and were examined in the first week postpartum by nurse-midwives, were followed up to 12 months to record maternal and child survival. Of them, a subset of 430 women was followed up at 6-8 weeks and 12 months to capture data on the physical, psychological, social, or economic consequences. Women with severe maternal complications around the time of delivery and in the immediate postpartum period experienced an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in the first postpartum year: 2.8% of the women with severe complications died within one year compared to none with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications also had higher rates of perinatal mortality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.96-8.1, p=0.000] and mortality of babies aged eight days to 12 months (AOR=3.14, CI 1.4-7.06, p=0.004). Compared to women in the uncomplicated group, women with severe complications were at a higher risk of depression at eight weeks and 12 months with perceived physical symptoms, had a greater difficulty in completing daily household work, and had important financial repercussions. The results suggest that women with severe complications at the time of delivery need to be provided regular follow-up services for their physical and psychological problems till about 12 months after childbirth. They also might benefit from financial support during several months in the postpartum period to prevent severe economic consequences. Further research is needed to identify an effective package of services for women in the first year after delivery. Source

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