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Uddin S.M.N.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Tempel A.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Adamowski J.F.,McGill University | Lapegue J.,Action Contre la Faim International | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2016

One of the major challenges for deploying sustainable sanitation technologies and services around the world is financing. The present study applied both qualitative (key informant interviews) and quantitative (household survey) methods to explore sources of alternative financing in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, towards deploying sustainable sanitation technologies and services. Microfinance organizations, government subsidies and mining industries may represent potential sources of financing for the implementation of sustainable sanitation technologies and services in Mongolia. Moreover, building social capital among Ger residents and reinventing the idea of ‘corporate WASH responsibility’ could constitute new directions for the future. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source


Uddin S.M.N.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Li Z.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Adamowski J.F.,McGill University | Ulbrich T.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

There are limited studies that focus on greywater treatment and reuse options, particularly in nomadic societies with unique cultural and climatic conditions. Studies relating to household greywater treatment in nomadic-cultured societies are limited. This study aims to address this gap by examining a case with a high concentration of chemical components in the greywater (e.g. where chemical oxygen demand ranged between 35 and 70,032mg/L). Specifically, an upgraded greenhouse greywater treatment unit (GH-GWTU) was designed and constructed during the summer of 2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in order to assess the technical feasibility, and up-scaling capability, of the system at the community level. Chemical and biological test results indicated that most parameters (e.g. PO43-, NO2-, NH4+) had a high removal rate of up to 98%. Moreover, the greenhouse may extend the treatment period up to 8 months. This study has shown that GH-GWTU is a potential technology that can significantly reduce the chemicals and biological agents in greywater in Mongolian Ger contexts which may reduce the greywater-borne hazards and vulnerability in the area. It can be replicable both at the household and community scale according to resources available for system operation and maintenance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Moon S.,Harvard University | Moon S.,Boston University | Sridhar D.,University of Edinburgh | Pate M.A.,Duke Global Health Institute | And 21 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

The west African Ebola epidemic that began in 2013 exposed deep inadequacies in the national and international institutions responsible for protecting the public from the far-reaching human, social, economic, and political consequences of infectious disease outbreaks. The Ebola epidemic raised a crucial question: what reforms are needed to mend the fragile global system for outbreak prevention and response, rebuild confidence, and prevent future disasters? To address this question, the Harvard Global Health Institute and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine jointly launched the Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola. Panel members from academia, think tanks, and civil society have collectively reviewed the worldwide response to the Ebola outbreak. After difficult and lengthy deliberation, we concluded that major reforms are both warranted and feasible. The Panel's conclusions off er a roadmap of ten interrelated recommendations across four thematic areas: 1 Preventing major disease outbreaks All countries need a minimum level of core capacity to detect, report, and respond rapidly to outbreaks. The shortage of such capacities in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone enabled Ebola to develop into a national, and worldwide, crisis. Recommendation 1: The global community must agree on a clear strategy to ensure that governments invest domestically in building such capacities and mobilise adequate external support to supplement eff orts in poorer countries. This plan must be supported by a transparent central system for tracking and monitoring the results of these resource flows. Additionally, all governments must agree to regular, independent, external assessment of their core capacities. Recommendation 2: WHO should promote early reporting of outbreaks by commending countries that rapidly and publicly share information, while publishing lists of countries that delay reporting. Funders should create economic incentives for early reporting by committing to disburse emergency funds rapidly to assist countries when outbreaks strike and compensating for economic losses that might result. Additionally, WHO must confront governments that implement trade and travel restrictions without scientific justification, while developing industry-wide cooperation frameworks to ensure private firms such as airlines and shipping companies continue to provide crucial services during emergencies. 2 Responding to major disease outbreaks When preventive measures do not succeed, outbreaks can cross borders and surpass national capacities. Ebola exposed WHO as unable to meet its responsibility for responding to such situations and alerting the global community. Recommendation 3: A dedicated centre for outbreak response with strong technical capacity, a protected budget, and clear lines of accountability should be created at WHO, governed by a separate Board. Recommendation 4: A transparent and politically protected WHO Standing Emergency Committee should be delegated with the responsibility for declaring public health emergencies. Recommendation 5: An independent UN Accountability Commission should be created to do systemwide assessments of worldwide responses to major disease outbreaks. 3 Research: production and sharing of data, knowledge, and technology Rapid knowledge production and dissemination are essential for outbreak prevention and response, but reliable systems for sharing epidemiological, genomic, and clinical data were not established during the Ebola outbreak. Recommendation 6: Governments, the scientific research community, industry, and non-governmental organisations must begin to develop a framework of norms and rules operating both during and between outbreaks to enable and accelerate research, govern the conduct of research, and ensure access to the benefits of research. Recommendation 7: Additionally, research funders should establish a worldwide research and development financing facility for outbreak-relevant drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and non-pharmaceutical supplies (such as personal protective equipment) when commercial incentives are not appropriate. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tirado M.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Crahay P.,Action Contre la Faim International | Mahy L.,United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition | Zanev C.,World Food Programme | And 6 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2013

Background: Climate change further exacerbates the enormous existing burden of undernutrition. It affects food and nutrition security and undermines current efforts to reduce hunger and promote nutrition. Undernutrition in turn undermines climate resilience and the coping strategies of vulnerable populations. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to identify and undertake a cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the existing mechanisms, strategies, and policies to address them. Methods: A cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the mechanisms and policies to address them was guided by an analytical framework focused on the three 'underlying causes' of undernutrition: 1) household food access, 2) maternal and child care and feeding practices, 3) environmental health and health access. The analytical framework includes the interactions of the three underlying causes of undernutrition with climate change,vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation. Results: Within broad efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation and climate-resilient development, a combination of nutrition-sensitive adaptationand mitigation measures, climate-resilient and nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, social protection, improved maternal and child care and health, nutrition-sensitive risk reduction and management, community development measures, nutrition-smart investments, increased policy coherence, and institutional andcross-sectoral collaboration are proposed as a means to address the impacts of climate change to food and nutrition security. This paper proposes policy directions to address nutrition in the climate change agenda and recommendations for consideration by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Conclusions: Nutrition and health stakeholders need to be engaged in key climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives, including science-based assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and policies and actions formulated by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Improved multi-sectoral coordination and political will is required to integrate nutrition-sensitive actions into climate-resilient sustainable development efforts in the UNFCCC work and in the post 2015 development agenda. Placing human rights at the center of strategies to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change and international solidarity is essential to advancesustainable development and to create a climate for nutrition security. © 2013, The Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation. Source

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