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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

Elster D.,Cranfield University | Holman I.P.,Cranfield University | Parker A.,Cranfield University | Rudge L.,Action Contre la Faim
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology | Year: 2014

Liberia is recovering from a 14 year civil war and only 51% of the rural population has access to safe drinking water. Little hydrogeological knowledge survives in Liberia, increasing the difficulty in successfully siting new boreholes. An understanding of the local hydrogeological environment is therefore needed to improve borehole site selection and increase success rates. This research provides a semi-quantitative characterization of the hydrogeological environment of the basement aquifer in Lofa county, Liberia. Based on literature review and analysis of borehole logs, the study has developed a conceptual hydrogeological model for the local conditions, which is further characterized using 2D geoelectrical sections. Groundwater is predominantly obtained from the saprolite and underlying fractured bedrock, but specific capacities (median 281 l h-1 m-1; 25th and 75th percentile of 179 and 490 l h-1 m-1, respectively) are constrained by the limited thickness of the saturated saprolite. This study has shown that the groundwater resources in the crystalline basement in this part of Liberia conform to the general conceptual model, allowing standard techniques used elsewhere for siting and developing groundwater to be used. © 2014 The Geological Society of London. Source

Acharya O.,Action Contre la Faim | Zotor F.B.,University of South Africa | Chaudhary P.,Nepal Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists NESOG | Deepak K.,University of Chester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Health Management | Year: 2016

Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy may predispose to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), immunological and metabolic adaptations which manifest as low birth weight (LBW) and increase the risk of adult non-communicable disease. This study examined the relationships between maternal nutritional status, food intake and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) which may account for risk of LBW in Nepal. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural and urban Nepalese population using simple random sampling to select eligible subjects. Retrospective data was extracted from records and dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24 Hour Dietary Recall. A total of 376 women were recruited. A high prevalence of LBW (27.9 per cent) and preterm (14 per cent) delivery were observed. LBW was higher in rural than urban subjects (p < 0.05). Birth weight was related to period of gestation (r = 0.609, p < 0.05) (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), energy intake (r = 0.061, p < 0.001) and maternal protein intake (r = 0.501, p < 0.001). Low PWG (8.11 kg) was also observed and was associated with protein (r = 0.499, p < 0.01) and energy intake (r = 0.396, p < 0.01) and were lower among mothers in rural areas (p < 0.05). Calcium intake was related to crown heel length (CHL) (r = 0.399, p < 0.001). Lipid, zinc and folate intake were significantly different in rural and urban subjects although the latter were adequate in both. Findings demonstrate the impact of maternal nutrition on birth outcomes in relation to specific nutrients and components of the diet. Targeted interventions are supported by the findings of this study in both rural and urban areas of Nepal. © 2016 Indian Institute of Health Management Research. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: GARRI-6-2014 | Award Amount: 2.65M | Year: 2015

The goal of the TRUST Project is to catalyse a global collaborative effort to improve adherence to high ethical standards around the world. Achieving equity in international research is one of the pressing concerns of the 21st century. Many international groups and organisations are working on governance frameworks and standards to guide research activities after progressive globalization. However, their efforts are disparate and lacking a guiding vision. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between multi-level ethics bodies, policy advisors, civil society organisations, funding organisations, industry and academic scholars from a range of disciplines, this project combines long-standing, highly respected efforts to build international governance structures with new exciting network opportunities between Europe, India, Sub-Saharan Africa, China and Russia. TRUST will open up new horizons in improving adherence to high ethical standards in research globally. The projects strategic output are three sets of tools based on participatory engagement covering all continents: (1) a global code of conduct for funders, (2) a fair research contracting on-line tool and (3) a compliance and ethics follow-up tool, which takes limited resources into account.

Alcoba G.,University of Geneva | Kerac M.,University College London | Breysse S.,Action Contre la Faim | Salpeteur C.,Action Contre la Faim | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Current (1999) World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB) for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation. Methods and Findings: OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT), five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05). However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27). Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27-55%) vs 22% (IQR 17-23%) and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23-57%) vs 35.4% (range 6.7-42%). Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM. Conclusions: The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use needs urgent testing. With reliable monitoring, we believe that there is sufficient equipoise for placebo controlled RCTs, the only robust way to demonstrate true efficacy. © 2013 Alcoba et al. Source

McDermott J.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Ait-Aissa M.,Action Contre la Faim | Morel J.,Action Contre la Faim | Rapando N.,Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns Uganda
Food Security | Year: 2013

Aligning agriculture to improve household nutrition security requires agricultural research and development specialists to understand nutrition objectives and be able to contribute to integrated agriculture-health programs. This paper builds on discussions during the household nutrition security session at the second Global Conference on Agriculture Research for Development (GCARD2). To begin, there is a summary of the variety of ways essential nutrition knowledge can underpin nutrition-sensitive agriculture. Lessons for improving nutrition through agriculture, including: efficient and effective production of diversified, highly nutritious and biofortified foods, enhancing value chains to improve nutritional quality and food safety, and better policies and investments, are highlighted. Frequently missing in discussions on nutrition-sensitive agriculture are the requirements for capacity development and extension-critical requirements to scaling-out and sustaining improved nutrition outcomes through agriculture. Gender, local empowerment and other key issues are discussed, as are the opportunities for cost-effective approaches to be implemented and expanded. Finally, research gaps, approaches and priorities to improve practice and anticipate and respond to dynamic changes in biological and social systems are discussed. Four next steps are summarized: (1) align agricultural interventions with those in health services, water and sanitation and social protection; (2) implement approaches to accelerate learning for development implementation and policy and investment enabling; (3) build local and national capacity to adapt and innovate; and (4) empower women and disadvantaged communities, in which the burden and solutions to nutrition security are found. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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