Graveline N.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Maton L.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Rinaudo J.-D.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Luckge H.,INFRAS Consulting and Analysis and Research |
And 4 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010
The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000 requires EU Member States to adapt and to strengthen their monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. New monitoring strategies and practices have to be designed to monitor all polluting substances discharged into the aquatic environment, including priority substances or emerging pollutants that might be present at low concentrations. This requirement implies adapting monitoring locations and density, and monitoring frequency. It might also imply adapting monitoring techniques by integrating alternative screening methods and emerging tools for monitoring water quality to complement existing monitoring.We present the results of five European case studies that explored the potential uses of screening methods and emerging tools for responding to the new monitoring challenges of the WFD under different hydrological and environmental conditions. Combining their technical characteristics with the practical needs identified by monitoring experts and water stakeholders, we identified potential applications and opportunities for operational and investigative monitoring. Advantages of these methods include rapid delivery of results on-site, low-cost and capacity to acquire a larger number of observations within a given (short) time frame. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Loubier S.,IRSTEA |
Poussin J.-C.,IRD Montpellier |
Gleyses G.,IRSTEA |
Le Mat O.,ACTeon |
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2011
In numerous river basins, the implementation of the Water Framework Directive challenges the administrative authorization delivered for agricultural withdrawals. In such a context, farmers demand public subsidies for building water reservoirs filled in winter for summer use (substitution reservoirs) in order to compensate the water quota reduction and prevent drop in income. We here present a financial and economic assessment method for such projects and highlight how it is possible to support the decision in assessing profitability thresholds. This method combines classical project economic analysis and microeconomic modelling. It is implemented in the Boutonne River basin, where an 84% agricultural water quota reduction is planned. Our calculation shows that this quota reduction could lead to a drop of 3.2Msin agricultural income at the basin scale and creation of a 15.5 Mm3 water reservoir could offset the 19.6 Mm3 quota reduction. However, this creation of a water reservoir for irrigation is not feasible without state aid. Economical and financial criteria alone do not make it possible to decide on creating the reservoir, but they are usable for determining the impacts of public subsidize rates.
Acteon and Satelec Pierre Rolland | Date: 2005-09-13
Pharmaceutical products for dental care, namely pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of dental canals, solvents for eugenate-type root canal filling cements; preparations for root canals, namely, chelators in the nature of sealing compounds, powder for permanent sealing cement; temporary antiseptic dressings, root canal disinfectants for use prior to fillings and root canal devitalization, sedative dressings and pulpal antiseptics, permanent sealing cement for root canals, and light cavity liner plaque indicators for polishing teeth after scaling; hygienic products for dental medicine, namely, tooth cleanser tablets, bactericide, virucide and fungicide; plastic material for medical bandages; material for filling teeth and for dental impressions; all purpose disinfectants; amalgams, cements, lacquers, dental mastic, porcelain for dental prostheses; preparations for facilitation of dentitions and remedies for dental use, namely, hemostatic surgical dressing, sedatives, anesthetic by infiltration. Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus, namely, ultrasonic scalers, endodontic treatment units, air polishers, curing lights; artificial teeth; sutures; analytical apparatus for medical use, namely, ray diagnostic units; flushing devices for rinsing body cavities during surgery; electrical dental apparatus, namely, electrosurgery apparatus in the nature of high frequency current electrosurge probes, implantology surgical drilling units, surgical CO2 lasers, surgical ultrasonic aspirators for human and/or veterinary use; dental apparatus and instruments, namely, autoclaves for use in the sterilization of medical, dental and surgical instruments; orthodontic apparatus, namely, expansion screws, night guards; ultrasonic apparatus for dental use; sterile dental needles.