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Villers-Bocage, France

Rolet-Repecaud O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Arnould C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dupont D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dupont D.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Chymosin is the major enzyme of natural rennet, traditionally used in cheese making for its high milk-clotting activity. For technical reasons, an accurate characterization of rennet should include its total clotting activity and also its enzymatic composition. Monoclonal antibodies specific to chymosin were obtained from mice immunized with purified bovine chymosin, and an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of chymosin in solution. No cross-reactivity was observed with other milk-clotting enzymes commonly used in cheese making. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 125 and 400 ng/mL, respectively. The values of precision within and among runs were 7.23 and 7.39%, respectively, and satisfying recovery, from 92 to 119%, was found for spiked samples. The inhibition ELISA was successfully applied to commercial rennets, and the results were consistent with those obtained using the standard chromatographic method (IDF 110: A, 1987). © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Morin T.,European University of Brittany | Martin H.,French Agency for Food | Soumet C.,French Agency for Food | Fresnel R.,French Agency for Food | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

Aims: The phagicidal activity of peroxy products against the virulent bacteriophage P001 infecting lactic acid bacteria and bacteriophage MS2 used as a surrogate of enteric viruses (EVs) was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite using the EN 13610 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratories. Methods and Results: Infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference P001 phage of Lactoccocus lactis and F-specific RNA phage MS2 of Escherichia coli in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of sodium hypochlorite were phagicidal against both bacteriophages, either at 0·05-0·125% of active chlorine using the suspension test or at 0·12-0·5% using the surface test. For Potassium monopersulphate (MPS), phagicidal concentrations varied from 0·006 to 0·012% whatever the type of test and phages. However, for peracetic acid products (PAP) used in suspension, concentrations 55 times higher were necessary against MS2 (0·271%) than against P001 (0·005%). With the surface test, 0·089-0·178% concentrations of PAP were effective against MS2, but these concentrations were 16-32 times greater than needed against P001. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and MPS had similar phagicidal activities against P001 and MS2, but PAP did not. Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first comparative study to investigate through suspension and surface tests the difference in resistance to peroxy compounds between a reference bacteriophage (P001) used to evaluate phagicidal concentrations in European standards and a surrogate of EVs (MS2). Results underline the importance of validation tests on pertinent surrogates of viruses or bacteriophages to adjust the concentration of disinfectants for use in the food and water industries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

Chatelard-Chauvin C.,POle fromager AOP Massif central | Pelissier F.,ACTALIA | Hulin S.,POle fromager AOP Massif central | Montel M.C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Food Control | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to run challenge tests to investigate the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk Cantal type uncooked pressed cheeses throughout the cheese process and during storage in different packagings (stretch film, vacuum packs and kraft paper) at 6°C during two-thirds of the storage period, then at 10°C; for kraft paper the last five days were at 15°C. Whatever the weight of the cheese (10 or 40kg), L.monocytogenes only increased during the first 24h of cheese making and decreased significantly in both cores and rinds during ripening at 9°C from day 45 to day 360. In cores, decay rate can depend on milk properties and in our experiment were associated with high levels of lactate and acetate during ripening. The decrease continued significantly in the cores during storage in all three packagings, more rapidly than during ripening. The populations of the pathogen were usually similar whatever the packaging. In rind, L monocytogenes decreased most significantly during storage in kraft paper; after 45 days of storage the counts were significantly lower in kraft paper than under vacuum whereas Gram positive non lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were at higher counts. The low aw (<0.90) in the rinds of kraft wrapped portions may be responsible for this decrease. High pH (6 Source

Golay P.-A.,Nestle | Moulin J.,Nestle | Alewijn M.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Braun U.,MUVA | And 16 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2016

A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015 | IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were identified by comparison with the retention times of pure analytical standards. Quantification of fatty acids was done relative to C11:0 FAME as internal standard and to instrument response factors (determined separately using calibration standards mixture). The performance of the method (i.e., transesterification) was monitored in all samples using the second internal standard, C13:0 TAG. RSDR values were summarized separately for labeled fatty acids in SPIFAN materials and ISO-IDF materials due to different expression of results. This method was applied to representative dairy, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional products and demonstrated global acceptable reproducibility precision for all fatty acids analyzed (i.e., 46 individuals and/or groups) for these categories of products. Source

Guillard V.,Montpellier University | Couvert O.,2 Rue Of Luniversite | Stahl V.,AERIAL | Hanin A.,ACTALIA | And 6 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2016

Predicting microbial safety of fresh products in modified atmosphere packaging implies to take into account the dynamic of O2, CO2 and N2 exchanges in the system and its effect on microbial growth. In this paper a mechanistic model coupling gas transfer and predictive microbiology was validated using dedicated challenge-tests performed on poultry meat, fresh salmon and processed cheese, inoculated with either Listeria monocytogenes or Pseudomonas fluorescens and packed in commercially used packaging materials (tray + lid films). The model succeeded in predicting the relative variation of O2, CO2 and N2 partial pressure in headspace and the growth of the studied microorganisms without any parameter identification. This work highlighted that the respiration of the targeted microorganism itself and/or that of the naturally present microflora could not be neglected in most of the cases, and could, in the particular case of aerobic microbes contribute to limit the growth by removing all residual O2 in the package. This work also confirmed the low sensitivity of L. monocytogenes toward CO2 while that of P. fluorescens permitted to efficiently prevent its growth by choosing the right combination of packaging gas permeability value and initial % of CO2 initially flushed in the pack. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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