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Saint-Georges-sur-Loire, France

Decourtye A.,ACTA | Mader E.,Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation | Mader E.,University of Minnesota | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Apidologie | Year: 2010

Honey bee populations have experienced serious losses in Europe and North America. These losses highlight the potential risk to our agricultural systems that could result from loss of pollination. These losses include direct economic repercussions to multiple industries (beekeeping, fruit, vegetable, forage seed, oil seed and biofuel crops), and corresponding threats to human nutrition. Reasons for the losses are varied but include a lack of diverse nectar and pollen resources within intensively farmed agricultural landscapes. Focusing primarily on Europe and the USA, we review the potential approaches to provide and maintain diverse floral resources for honey bees, giving particular consideration to herbaceous plants ("forbs"). These approaches include the cultivation and maintenance of "bee pastures", consisting of diverse native or non-native flower-rich plantings maintained in fallow areas, field margins, and conservation buffer strips to sustain bee populations, support honey bee health, and aid beekeeping activities. Within this review we examine specific governmental policy initiatives to support these efforts in the USA and Europe. © 2010 INRA/DIB-AGIB/EDP Sciences. Source

Raber-Durlacher J.E.,University of Amsterdam | Laheij A.M.G.A.,ACTA | Epstein J.B.,City of Hope | Epstein M.,St Josephs Regional Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2013

Aim: This study was aimed to investigate whether any association could be found between the presence of an inflamed and infected periodontium (e.g., gingivitis and periodontitis) and the development of bacteremia during neutropenia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: Eighteen patients underwent a periodontal examination before HSCT. Patients were classified as periodontally healthy [all periodontal pocket depths (PPD) ≤ 4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) ≤ 10 %) or as having gingivitis/periodontitis (PPD ≥ 4 mm and BOP > 10 %]. Oral mucositis (OM) was scored using the daily mucositis score. Blood cultures were taken at least twice weekly. Results: Five patients were periodontally healthy, while 13 patients had gingivitis or periodontitis. Twelve patients (67 %) developed bacteremia during neutropenia, of which 11 patients (61 %) had one or more episodes of bacteremia due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS, most often Staphylococcus epidermidis) or to oral viridans streptococci (OVS), or both. Patients with gingivitis/periodontitis more often had bacteremia than those with a healthy periodontium (p = 0.047), and BOP was associated with bacteremia (p = 0.049). All patients developed ulcerative OM, but its severity and duration were not associated with bacteremia. OM duration and the length of stay in the hospital were strongly correlated (R = 0.835, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: This study indicates that periodontal infections may contribute to the risk of developing OVS and CONS bacteremia during neutropenia following HSCT. While our results point to the importance of periodontal evaluation and management before HSCT, further studies on periodontal contribution to systemic infectious complications are warranted. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Qu X.M.,Peking University | Li G.,Peking University | Sanderink G.C.H.,ACTA | Zhang Z.Y.,Peking University | Ma X.C.,Peking University
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid collars on radiation dose during cone beam CT (CBCT) scanning. Methods: Average tissue-absorbed dose for a NewTom 9000 CBCT scanner (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy) was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeter chips in a phantom. The scans were carried out with and without thyroid collars. Effective organ dose and total effective dose were derived using International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations. Results: The effective organ doses for the thyroid gland and oesophagus were 31.0 mSv and 2.4 mSv, respectively, during CBCT scanning without a collar around the neck. When the thyroid collars were used loosely around the neck, no effective organ dose reduction was observed. When one thyroid collar was used tightly on the front of the neck, the effective organ dose for the thyroid gland and oesophagus were reduced to 15.9 μSv (48.7% reduction) and 1.4 μSv (41.7% reduction), respectively. Similar organ dose reduction (46.5% and 41.7%) was achieved when CBCT scanning was performed with two collars tightly on the front and back of the neck. However, the differences to the total effective dose were not significant among the scans with and without collars around the neck (p = 0.775). Conclusions: Thyroid collars can effectively reduce the radiation dose to the thyroid and oesophagus if used appropriately. © 2012 The British Institute of Radiology. Source

Henry M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Frochen M.,ARVALIS Institute du vegetal Station Experimentale | Maillet-Mezeray J.,ARVALIS Institute du vegetal Station Experimentale | Breyne E.,ADAPIC Cite de lAgriculture | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2012

A substantial honeybee decline is being observed worldwide. Agricultural intensification and loss of wild floral resources rank among the main factors contributing to this decline. Landscape enhancement of floral resources has been proposed as an agro-environmental scheme intended to provide honeybees with compensatory food sources in intensive agrosystems. Floral scheme efficiency has rarely been evaluated with respect to landscape context. In this study, we developed and validated a modeling tool to delineate the landscape areas likely to be associated with higher efficiency of floral enhancement schemes. In particular, the proximity of some landscape elements used by honeybees, either as foraging habitat or as visual landmark for orientation, may partly determine floral scheme efficiency. We investigated this issue using resource selection functions (RSFs), i.e. models that aim to predict the occurrence of foraging honeybees at floral patches as a function of the presence of keystone landscape elements in their proximity. However, deciding which landscape elements are effectively in the proximity or not is mostly a matter of subjectivity. The novelty of our approach resides in its use of a distance-weighting function to explicitly account for the spatial location of surrounding landscape elements. In that respect, a distance function should be scaled on movement patterns of foraging organisms. Herein, we inferred movement patterns from the autocorrelative properties of honeybee foraging activity. This modeling approach was developed on Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia) field margin strips, a typical " honeybee-friendly" floral scheme. A foraging survey conducted on 170 Phacelia plots (2 m × 2. m) from 17 Phacelia strips, all positioned within the foraging range of an experimental apiary, revealed that (i) the floral scheme efficiency is positively influenced by the presence of linear landscape elements such as hedgerows and forest edges, but negatively affected by the presence of alternative floral resources, and that (ii) weighting the relative importance of those landscape elements by incorporating a distance function into models considerably improved their predictive power. This modeling tool has the potential to help land managers optimizing their financial investment by avoiding low-efficiency landscape areas, or favoring high-efficiency ones, at the time of planning floral enhancement schemes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Open bite development during distraction of the mandible is common and partly due to inaccurate planning of the treatment. Conflicting guidelines exist in the literature. A method for Visualized Treatment Objective (VTO) construction is presented as an aid for determining the correct orientation of monodirectional and multidirectional distractors. Distraction on the left and on the right side of the mandible takes place in a parallel manner in order to maintain intercondylar width. It follows that in the absence of marked asymmetry, the amount of mandibular body distraction, the amount of ramus distraction and (should it apply), the amount of closure of the gonial angle, can be derived from a simple 2-dimensional plan. After presurgical orthodontic treatment, a cephalogram is taken and a VTO is constructed, that aims at a good occlusion with the enhanced mandible in centric relation, with little or no change of the original position of the rami. © 2009 European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Source

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