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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EO-2-2015 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2016

The Co-ReSyF project will implement a dedicated data access and processing infrastructure, with automated tools, methods and standards to support research applications using Earth Observation (EO) data for monitoring of Coastal Waters, leveraging on the components deployed SenSyF. The main objective is to facilitate the access to Earth Observation data and pre-processing tools to the research community, towards the future provision of future Coastal Waters services based on EO data. Through Co-ReSyFs collaborative front end, even young and/or inexperienced researchers in EO will be able to upload their applications to the system to compose and configure processing chains for easy deployment on the cloud infrastructure. They will be able to accelerate the development of high-performing applications taking full advantage of the scalability of resources available in the cloud framework. The included facilities and tools, optimized for distributed processing, include EO data access catalogue, discovery and retrieval tools, as well as a number of pre-processing and toolboxes for manipulating EO data. Advanced users will also be able to go further and take full control of the processing chains and algorithms by having access to the cloud back-end and to further optimize their applications for fast deployment for big data access and processing. The Co-ReSyF capabilities will be supported and initially demonstrated by a series of early adopters that will develop new research applications on the coastal domain, will guide the definition of requirements and serve as system beta testers. A competitive call will be issued within the project to further demonstrate and promote the usage of the Co-ReSyF release. These pioneering researchers in will be given access not only to the platform itself, but also to extensive training material on the system and also on Coastal Waters research themes, as well as to the projects events, including the Summer School and Final Workshop.

Calatayud V.,Fundacion CEAM | Dieguez J.J.,Fundacion CEAM | Sicard P.,ACRI HE | Schaub M.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | De Marco A.,ENEA
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Current ozone (O3) levels are high enough to negatively affect vegetation and may become worse in the future. Ozone risk assessments have recently shifted from exposure-based to flux-based metrics. Modeling stomatal O3 fluxes requires hourly O3 and meteorological data, which are not always available. Large datasets of O3 concentrations measured with passive samplers exist worldwide, and usually provide weekly to monthly means. We tested the suitability of using aggregated data instead of hourly data for O3 flux calculations with 3-year time series of O3 data from 24 Spanish air quality stations. Five different approaches and three different parameterizations were tested. Ozone-averaged values in combination with hourly meteorological data provided the most robust estimates of accumulated O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose with no threshold, POD0), and the median of the absolute percent error (MAPE) due to aggregation came close to 5%. Aggregations from 1 week to 1 month yielded similar errors, which is important in the cost-efficiency terms of the chosen passive sampler exposure periodicity. One major limitation of these approaches is that they are not suitable for high POD thresholds, and that accuracy of the measurements with passive samplers has to be strictly assured in order to finally obtain acceptable errors. A combination of meteorological data and O3 passive sampler measurements may be used to estimate O3 fluxes at remote forest sites as a valuable risk assessment tool. © 2016

PubMed | ENEA, ACRI HE, Swiss Federal Institute of forest and Fundacion CEAM
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Current ozone (O

PubMed | CNR Institute of Neuroscience, ENEA, IPLA Instituto per le Piante da Legno e lAmbiente, GIEFS Groupe International dEtudes des Forets Sud europeennes and ACRI HE
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O3) risk in Europe where ground-level O3 is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O3 was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O3 indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O3 fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O3 injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O3 injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux-effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O3 injury. For O3 sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m(-2) for Pinus cembra (high O3 sensitivity) and 32 mmol m(-2) for Pinus halepensis (moderate O3 sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m(-2) for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O3 sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m(-2) for Fraxinus excelsior (high O3 sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O3 injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O3 uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for hours with a non-null global radiation over the 24-h O3 accumulation window.

PubMed | Chinese Academy of Forestry, Federal Research and Training Center for Forests, Istanbul University, CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and stomatal O3 flux parameterizations for risk assessment, especially, in under-investigated regions; (xxii) Defining biologically based O3 standards for protection thresholds and critical levels; (xxiii) Use of free-air exposure facilities; (xxiv) Assessing O3 impacts on forest ecosystem services.

PubMed | North Park University, University of Rome La Sapienza, National Research Council Italy, Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global change biology | Year: 2016

Tropospheric ozone (O3) produces harmful effects to forests and crops, leading to a reduction of land carbon assimilation that, consequently, influences the land sink and the crop yield production. To assess the potential negative O3 impacts to vegetation, the European Union uses the Accumulated Ozone over Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). This index has been chosen for its simplicity and flexibility in handling different ecosystems as well as for its linear relationships with yield or biomass loss. However, AOT40 does not give any information on the physiological O3 uptake into the leaves since it does not include any environmental constraints to O3 uptake through stomata. Therefore, an index based on stomatal O3 uptake (i.e. PODY), which describes the amount of O3 entering into the leaves, would be more appropriate. Specifically, the PODY metric considers the effects of multiple climatic factors, vegetation characteristics and local and phenological inputs rather than the only atmospheric O3 concentration. For this reason, the use of PODY in the O3 risk assessment for vegetation is becoming recommended. We compare different potential O3 risk assessments based on two methodologies (i.e. AOT40 and stomatal O3 uptake) using a framework of mesoscale models that produces hourly meteorological and O3 data at high spatial resolution (12 km) over Europe for the time period 2000-2005. Results indicate a remarkable spatial and temporal inconsistency between the two indices, suggesting that a new definition of European legislative standard is needed in the near future. Besides, our risk assessment based on AOT40 shows a good consistency compared to both in-situ data and other model-based datasets. Conversely, risk assessment based on stomatal O3 uptake shows different spatial patterns compared to other model-based datasets. This strong inconsistency can be likely related to a different vegetation cover and its associated parameterizations.

PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, ACRI HE and ENEA
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Ozone (O3) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O3 can impair CO2 assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O3 on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000-2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O3 monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O3 measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O3 concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O3 on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O3 ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O3 impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration.

De Marco A.,ENEA | Sicard P.,ACRI HE | Fares S.,CREA RPS | Anav A.,ENEA | Paoletti E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (PODY), defined as the accumulated stomatal ozone flux over a threshold of Y, is considered an optimal metric to evaluate O3 effects on vegetation. PODY is often computed through the DO3SE model, which includes species-specific parameterizations for the environmental response of stomatal conductance. However, the effect of soil water content (SWC) on stomatal aperture is difficult to model on a regional scale and thus often ignored. In this study, we used environmental input data obtained from the WRF-CHIMERE model for 14,546 grid-based forest sites in Southern Europe. SWC was obtained for the upper 10 cm of soil, which resulted in a worst-case risk scenario. PODY was calculated either with or without water limitation for different Y thresholds. Exclusion of the SWC effect on stomatal fluxes caused a serious overestimation of PODY. The difference increased with increasing Y (78%, 128%, 237% and 565% with Y = 0, 1, 2 and 3 nmol O3 m−2 s−1, respectively). This behaviour was confirmed by applying the same approach to field data measured in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest. WRF-CHIMERE overestimated SWC at this field site, so under real-world conditions the SWC effect may be larger than modelled. The differences were lower for temperate species (Pinus cembra 50–340%, P. sylvestris 57–363%, Abies alba 57–371%) than for Mediterranean species (P. pinaster 87–356%, P. halepensis 96–429%, P. pinea 107–532%, Q. suber 104–1602%), although a high difference was recorded also for the temperate species Fagus sylvatica with POD3 (524%). We conclude that SWC should be considered in PODY simulations and a low Y threshold should be used for robustness. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Gohin F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Bryere P.,ACRI HE | Griffiths J.W.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Griffiths J.W.,Bangor University
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2015

A succession of storms during the winter 2013-2014 enhanced the resuspension of sediments in the surface waters of the North-West European shelf seas. The effects of waves on satellite-derived non-algal SPM (Suspended Particulate Matters) are discussed for the January 2008-March 2014 period. A simple statistical model relating locally SPM to tidal intensity and waves helps us analyse the main characteristics of the winter 2013-2014. The exceptional run of storms observed in this stormy and rainy winter has resulted in the highest SPM concentration in the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay ever observed by remote-sensing during the 1998-2014 period. Despite the lower clarity of the surface waters over a large part of the continental shelf during the first days of March 2014, blooms occurred early off the coast of Southern Brittany (Bay of Biscay) and later in April, as usual, in the Celtic Sea. Off the coast of southern Brittany, a region of freshwater influence, the lower clarity of the waters was counterbalanced by stronger haline stratification, due to high river discharges, enabling the initiation of blooms in late winter when the solar irradiance is sufficient; which was the case in March 2014 with 7 sunny days in a row just after the last storm. As a consequence, we can postulate that a possible increase in the intensity of waves occurring from December to early March, along with a possible scenario of global change, would not restrict the productive period in the Bay of Biscay. However an extension of the period of storms later in March would delay the timing of the blooms as observed in March 2008 in most of the investigated area. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sicard P.,ACRI HE | Serra R.,ACRI HE | Rossello P.,GeographR
Environmental Research | Year: 2016

The hourly ozone (O3) data from 332 background monitoring stations, spread in France, were analyzed over the period 1999-2012 and short-term trends were calculated. In the current climate change context, the calculation of human health- and vegetation-relevant metrics, and of associated trends, provides a consistent method to establish proper and effective policies to reduce the adverse O3 effects. The generation of optimal O3 maps, for risk and exposure assessment, is challenging. To overcome this issue, starting from a set of stations, a hybrid regression-interpolation approach was proposed. Annual surface O3 metrics, O3 human health metrics (number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-h values greater than 60 ppb and SOMO35) and O3 vegetation impact metrics (AOT40 for vegetation and forests) were investigated at individual sites. Citizens are more exposed to high O3 levels in rural areas than people living in the cities. The annual mean concentrations decreased by -0.12 ppb year-1 at rural stations, and the significant reduction at 67% of stations, particularly during the warm season, in the number of episodic high O3 concentrations (e.g. 98th percentile, -0.19 ppb year-1) can be associated with the substantial reductions in NOx and VOCs emissions in the EU-28 countries since the early 1990s Inversely, the O3 background level is rising at 76% of urban sites (+0.14 ppb year-1), particularly during the cold period. This rise can be attributed to increases in imported O3 by long-range transport and to a low O3 titration by NO due to the reduction in local NOx emissions. The decrease in health-related and vegetation-relevant O3 metrics, at almost all stations, is driven by decreases in regional photochemical O3 formation and in peak O3 concentrations. The short-term trends highlight that the threat to population and vegetation declined between 1999 and 2012 in France, demonstrating the success of European control strategies over the last 20 years. However, for all exposure metrics, the issue of non-attainment of the target value for O3 persists in comparison with the objectives of air quality directives. The region at highest O3 risk is the South-eastern France. This study contains new information on the i) spatial distribution of surface O3 concentration, ii) exceedances and iii) trends to define more suitable standards for human health and environmental protection in France. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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