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News Article | December 4, 2015
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Home > Press > Storing electricity in paper: An organic mixed ion-electron conductor for power electronics Abstract: Researchers at Linköping University's Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Sweden, have developed power paper -- a new material with an outstanding ability to store energy. The material consists of nanocellulose and a conductive polymer. The results have been published in Advanced Science. One sheet, 15 centimetres in diameter and a few tenths of a millimetre thick can store as much as 1 F, which is similar to the supercapacitors currently on the market. The material can be recharged hundreds of times and each charge only takes a few seconds. It's a dream product in a world where the increased use of renewable energy requires new methods for energy storage -- from summer to winter, from a windy day to a calm one, from a sunny day to one with heavy cloud cover. "Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time. What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets," says Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics and co-author to the article just published in Advanced Science. Other co-authors are researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Innventia, Technical University of Denmark and the University of Kentucky. The material, power paper, looks and feels like a slightly plasticky paper and the researchers have amused themselves by using one piece to make an origami swan -- which gives an indication of its strength. The structural foundation of the material is nanocellulose, which is cellulose fibres which, using high-pressure water, are broken down into fibres as thin as 20 nm in diameter. With the cellulose fibres in a solution of water, an electrically charged polymer (PEDOT:PSS), also in a water solution, is added. The polymer then forms a thin coating around the fibres. "The covered fibres are in tangles, where the liquid in the spaces between them functions as an electrolyte," explains Jesper Edberg, doctoral student, who conducted the experiments together with Abdellah Malti, who recently completed his doctorate. The new cellulose-polymer material has set a new world record in simultaneous conductivity for ions and electrons, which explains its exceptional capacity for energy storage. It also opens the door to continued development toward even higher capacity. Unlike the batteries and capacitors currently on the market, power paper is produced from simple materials - renewable cellulose and an easily available polymer. It is light in weight, it requires no dangerous chemicals or heavy metals and it is waterproof. The Power Papers project has been financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation since 2012. "They leave us to our research, without demanding lengthy reports, and they trust us. We have a lot of pressure on us to deliver, but it's ok if it takes time, and we're grateful for that," says Professor Magnus Berggren, director of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University. The new power paper is just like regular pulp, which has to be dehydrated when making paper. The challenge is to develop an industrial-scale process for this. "Together with KTH, Acreo and Innventia we just received SEK 34 million from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to continue our efforts to develop a rational production method, a paper machine for power paper," says Professor Berggren. ### Power paper -- Four world records Highest charge and capacitance in organic electronics, 1 C and 2 F (Coulomb and Farad). Highest measured current in an organic conductor, 1 A (Ampere). Highest capacity to simultaneously conduct ions and electrons. Highest transconductance in a transistor, 1 S (Siemens) Publication: An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics, Abdellah Malti, Jesper Edberg, Hjalmar Granberg, Zia Ullah Khan, Jens W Andreasen, Xianjie Liu, Dan Zhao, Hao Zhang, Yulong Yao, Joseph W Brill, Isak Engquist, Mats Fahlman, Lars Wågberg, Xavier Crispin and Magnus Berggren. Advanced Science, DOI 10.1002/advs.201500305 For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "The Nanocoatings Global Opportunity Report" report to their offering. 'The Nanocoatings Global Opportunity Report' examines a market that is already providing significant economic, hygiene and environmental benefit for sectors such as consumer electronics, construction, medicine & healthcare, textiles, oil & gas, infrastructure and aviation. Research and development in nanotechnology and nanomaterials is now translating into tangible consumer products, providing new functionalities and opportunities in industries such as electronics, sporting goods, wearable electronics, textiles, construction etc. A recent example is quantum dot TVs, a multi-billion dollar boon for the High-definition TV market. Countless other opportunities exist for exploiting the exceptional properties of nanomaterials and these will increase as costs come down and production technologies improve. The incorporation of nanomaterials into thin films, coatings and surfaces leads to new functionalities, completely innovative characteristics and the possibility to achieve multi-functional coatings and smart coatings. The use of nanomaterials also results in performance enhancements in wear, corrosion-wear, fatigue and corrosion resistant coatings. Nanocoatings demonstrate significant enhancement in outdoor durability and vastly improved hardness and flexibility compared to traditional coatings. - Oil and gas - - Corrosion and scaling chemical inhibitors. - - Self-healing coatings. - - Smart coatings. - - Coatings for hydraulic fracturing. - Aerospace & aviation - - Shape memory coatings. - - Corrosion resistant coatings for aircraft parts. - - Thermal protection. - - Novel functional coatings for prevention of ice-accretion and insect-contamination. - Renewable energy - - Anti-fouling protective coatings for offshore marine structures. - - Anti-reflective solar module coatings. - - Ice-phobic wind turbines. - - Coatings for solar heating and cooling. - Automotive - - Anti-fogging nanocoatings and surface treatments. - - Improved mar and scratch resistance. - - Flexible glass. - - Corrosion prevention. - - Multi-functional glazing. - - Smart surfaces. - - Surface texturing technologies with enhanced gloss. - - New decorative and optical films. - - Self-healing. - Textiles & Apparel - - Sustainable coatings. - - High UV protection. - - Smart textiles. - - Electrically conductive textiles. - - Enhanced durability and protection. - - Anti-bacterial and self-cleaning. - - Water repellent while maintaining breathability.. - Medical - - Hydrophilic lubricious, hemocompatible, and drug delivery coatings. - - Anti-bacterial coatings to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. - - Hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings. - - Lubricant coatings. - - Protective implant coatings. - - High hardness coatings for medical implants. - - Infection control. - - Antimicrobial protection or biocidic activity. - Marine - - Anti-fouling and corrosion control coatings systems. - - Reduced friction coatings. - - Underwater hull coatings. - Buildings - - Thermochromic smart windows. - - Anti-reflection glazing. - - Self-cleaning surfaces. - - Passive cooling surfaces. - - Air-purifying. - Consumer electronics - - Waterproof electronic devices. - - Anti-fingerprint touchscreens. - Global market size for target markets - Addressable markets for nanocoatings, by nanocoatings type and industry - Estimated market revenues for nanocoatings to 2025 - 300 company profiles including products and target markets 1 Executive Summary 1.1 High performance coatings 1.2 Nanocoatings 1.3 Market drivers and trends 1.4 Market size and opportunity 1.5 Market and technical challenges 2 Introduction 2.1 Properties of nanomaterials 2.2 Categorization 2.3 Nanocoatings 2.4 Hydrophobic coatings and surfaces 2.5 Superhydrophobic coatings and surfaces 2.6 Oleophobic and omniphobic coatings and surfaces 6 Market Segment Analysis, By Coatings Type 6.1 Anti-Fingerprint Nanocoatings 6.2 Anti-Microbial Nanocoatings 6.3 Anti-Corrosion Nanocoatings 6.4 Abrasion & Wear-Resistant Nanocoatings 6.5 Barrier Nanocoatings 6.6 Anti-Fouling And Easy-To-Clean Nanocoatings 6.7 Self-Cleaning (Bionic) Nanocoatings 6.8 Self-Cleaning (Photocatalytic) Nanocoatings 6.9 Uv-Resistant Nanocoatings 6.10 Thermal Barrier And Flame Retardant Nanocoatings 6.11 Anti-Icing And De-Icing 6.12 Anti-Reflective Nanocoatings 6.13 Other Nanocoatings Types 7 Market Segment Analysis, By End User Market 7.1 Aerospace 7.2 Automotive 7.3 Construction, Architecture And Exterior Protection 7.4 Electronics 7.5 Household Care, Sanitary And Indoor Air Quality 7.6 Marine 7.7 Medical & Healthcare 7.8 Military And Defence 7.9 Packaging 7.10 Textiles And Apparel 7.11 Renewable Energy 7.12 Oil And Gas Exploration 7.13 Tools And Manufacturing 7.14 Anti-Counterfeiting - 3M - Abrisa Technologies - Accucoat, inc - Aculon, Inc - Acreo Engineering - ACTNano, inc - Advanced Materials-JTJ S.R.O - Advanced Silicon Group - Advenira Enterprises, Inc - Aeonclad Coatings - agPolymer S.r.l - Agienic Antimicrobials - Agion Technologies, Inc - AkzoNobel - Albert Rechtenbacher GmbH - ALD Nanosolutions, Inc - Alexium, Inc - AM Coatings - Analytical Services & Materials, Inc - Ancatt - Applied Nanocoatings, Inc - Applied Nano Surfaces - Applied Sciences, Inc - Applied Thin Films, Inc - ARA-Authentic GmbH - Asahi Glass Co., Ltd - Autonomic Materials - Aurolab - Avaluxe International GmbH - Bactiguard AB - BASF Corporation - Battelle - Beijing ChamGo Nano-Tech Co., Ltd., - Beneq OY - BigSky Technologies LLC - Biocote Ltd - Bio-Gate AG - Bioni CS GmbH - Bionic Technology Holding BV - Boral Limited - Buhler Partec - BYK-Chemie GmbH - California Nanotechnologies Corporation - Cambridge Nanotherm Limited - Cambrios Technologies Corporation - Canatu Oy - Carbodeon Ltd. Oy - Ceko Co., Ltd - Cellutech AB - CeNano GmbH & Co. KG - Cellmat Technologies S.L - Centrosolar Glas GmbH Co. KG - Cetelon Nanotechhnik GmbH - CG2 Nanocoatings, Inc - Cima Nanotech - Clarcor Industrial Air - Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH - Cleancorp Nanocoatings - Clearbridge Technologies Pte. Ltd - Clearjet Ltd - Clou - CMR Coatings GmbH - CNM Technologies GmbH - Coating Suisse GmbH - Corning, Incorporated - Cotec GmbH - Coval Molecular Coatings - Crossroads Coatings - CSD Nano, Inc - CTC Nanotechnology GmbH - C3 Nano - Cytonix CLLC - Daicel FineChem Limited - Daikin Industries, ltd - Diamon-Fusion International, Inc - Diarc-Technology Oy - DFE Chemie GmbH - Dow Corning - Dropwise Technologies Corporation - DryWired - Dry Surface Technologies LLC - DSP Co., Ltd - Duralar Technologies - Duraseal Coatings - Eeonyx Corporation - Eikos, Inc - Engineered Nanoproducts Germany AG - Enki Technology - Envaerospace, Inc - Eurama Corporation - Europlasma NV - Excel Coatings - Evonik Hanse - Few Chemicals GmbH - FN Nano, Inc - ForgeNano - Formacoat - Fujifilm - Fumin - FutureCarbon GmbH - Future Nanocoatings - General Paints - Green Earth nano Science, Inc - Green Millenium, Inc - Grenoble INP-Pagora - Grupo Repol - GSI Creos - GVD Corporation - GXC Coatings - Hanita Coatings - Hardide Coatings - HeiQ Materials AG - Hemoteq GmbH - Henkel AG & Co. KGaA - Hexis S.A - Hiab Products - Hitachi Chemical - Honeywell International, Inc - Hy-Power Nano, Inc - HzO, Inc - Hygratek, LLC - iFyber, LLC - Imbed Biosciences, Inc - Imerys - Industrial Nanotech, Inc - Inframat Corporation - INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials - InMat, Inc - InMold Biosystems - Innovcoat Nanocoatings and Surface Technologies Inc - Inno-X - Innventia AB - Inspiraz Technology pte LTd - Instrumental Polymer Technologies LLC - Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd - Integrated Surface Technologies, Inc - Integran Technologies, Inc - Integricote - Interlotus Nanotechnologie GmbH - Intumescents Associates Group - ISTN, Inc - ISurTech - ITN Nanovation AG - Izovac Ltd - JNC Corporation - Joma International AS - Jotun Protective Coatings - Kaneka Corporation - Klockner Pentaplast Europe GmbH & Co. KG - Kon Corporation - Kriya Materials B.V - Laiyang Zixilai Environment Protection Technology Co., Ltd - Life Air Iaq Ltd - Lintec of America, Inc., - Liquiglide, Inc - Liquipel, LLC - Lofec Nanocoatings - Lotus Applied Technology - Lotus Leaf Coatings - Luna Innovtions - Magnolia Solar - MDS Coating Technologies Corporation - Melodea - Merck Performance Materials - Mesocoat, Inc - Metal Estalki - Millidyne Oy - MMT Textiles Limited - Modumetal, Inc - Molecular Rebar - Muschert - N2 Biomedical - Naco Technologies, Inc - Nadico Technologie GmbH - Nagase & Co - Nanohygienix LLC - Namos GmbH - Nanobiomatters S.I - Nano-care AG - NanoCover A/S - Nanocure GmbH - Nanocyl - Nanofilm, Ltd - Nano Frontier Technology - Nanoex Company - Nanogate AG - Nanohmics - Nanohorizons, Inc - Nanokote Pty Ltd - Nanomate Technology - Nano Labs Corporation - NanoLotus Scandanavia Aps - Nanomembrane - NanoPack, Inc - NanoPhos SA - Nanopool GmbH - Nanops - Nanoservices BV - Nanoshell Ltd - Nanosol AG - Nanosonic, Inc - The NanoSteel Company, Inc - Nano Surface Solutions - NanoSys GmbH - Nanotech Security Corporation - Nano-Tex, Inc - NanoTouch Materials, LLC - Nanovere Technologies, LLC - Nanovis Incorporated - Nanoveu Pte. LTD - Nanowave Co., Ltd - Nano-X GmbH - Nanoyo Group Pte Ltd - Nanto Protective Coating - NBD Nano - NEI Corporation - Nelum Sciences LLC - Nelumbo - Neverwet LLC - NGimat - NIL Technology ApS - Nissan Chemical Industries Ltd - NOF Corporation - NTC Nanotech Coatings GmbH - n-tec GmbH - NTT Advanced Technology Corporation - Oceanit - Opticote Inc - Optics Balzers Ag - Optitune International Pte - Organiclick AB - Oxford Advanced SUrfaces - P2i Ltd - Panahome Corporation - Percenta AG - Perpetual Technologies, Inc - Philippi-Hagenbuch, Inc - Picosun Oy - Pioneer Medical Devices GmbH - Pneumaticicoat Technologies - PJI Contract Pte Ltd - Polymerplus, LLC - Powdermet, Inc - PPG Industries - Promimic AB - Pureti, Inc - Quantiam Technologies, Inc, - RBNano - Reactive Surfaces, LLP - Resodyn Corporation - Rochling Engineering Plastics - Royal DSM N.V - Saint-Gobain Glass - Sandvik Materials Technology - Sarastro GmbH - Schott AG - Seashell Technology LLC-Hydrobead - Semblant - Shandong Huimin Science & Technology Co., Ltd - Sharklet Technologies, Inc - Shin-Etsu Silicones - SHM - Sioen Industries NV - SiO2 Nanotech, LLC - Sketch Co., Ltd - Slips Technology - Sono-Tek Corporation - Spartan Nano Ltd - Starfire Systems, inc - Sub-One Technology, INc - Sumitomo Electric Hard-Metal Ltd - Suncoat GmbH - SupraPolix BV - SurfaceSolutions GmbH - Surfactis Technologies SAS - Surfatek LLC - Surfix BV - Suzhou Super Nano-Textile Teco Co - Takenake Seisakusho Co., Ltd - Tesla Nanocoatings - Theta Coatings - TNO - TopChim NV - Topasol LLC - Toray Advanced Film Co., Ltd - Toto - TripleO Performance Solution - Ultratech International, Inc - Vadlau GmbH - Valentis Nanotech - Vestagen Protective Technologies, Inc - Viriflex - VTT Technical Research Center - Wacker Chemie AG - Wattglass, LLC - Well Shield LLC - Zschimmer & Schwarz For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/4ktr5t/the_nanocoatings Research and Markets is the world's leading source for international market research reports and market data. We provide you with the latest data on international and regional markets, key industries, the top companies, new products and the latest trends.


Lopez-Cortes D.,ACREO | Lopez-Cortes D.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Lopez-Cortes D.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics | Tarasenko O.,ACREO | And 2 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

An all-fiber nanosecond Kerr light gate is described that was constructed using microstructured fibers. The switching voltage for a 20 cm long device is as low as Vp ∼ 85 V at a 1.06 μm wavelength. The device is fully spliced. The active element is a three-hole fiber provided with internal electrodes in the side-holes and a liquid core of nitrobenzene, which is fully enclosed. This work allows the exploiting of electrically driven liquid-core fibers and demonstrated the removal of the major limitations of Kerr cells in the past, allowing for integration, safe use, and relatively low switching voltage. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Rugeland P.,Acreo | Rugeland P.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Margulis W.,Acreo | Margulis W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Optics | Year: 2012

A twin-core fiber Michelson interferometer is evaluated as a high-temperature sensor. Although linear and reproducible operation up to 300°C is obtained, at higher temperatures (700°C) the refractive index shifts plastically and hysteresis is observed, rendering an untreated sensor head unusable. The shift is shown to be greatly reduced by an annealing process of the fiber for 10 h at 900°C, with which the linear response is preserved. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Sudirman A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Norin L.,Acreo | Margulis W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Carbon-coated optical fibers are used here for reducing the luminescence background created by the primary-coating and thus increase the sensitivity of fiber-based spectroscopy systems. The 2-3 orders of magnitude signal-to-noise ratio improvement with standard telecom fibers is sufficient to allow for their use as Raman probes in the identification of organic solvents. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


News Article | December 10, 2015
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Researchers at Linköping University's Laboratory of Organic Electronics in Sweden have developed power paper – a new material consisting of nanocellulose and a conductive polymer that boasts an outstanding ability to store energy. One sheet of the new power paper, 15cm in diameter and a few tenths of a millimetre thick, can store as much as 1 farad (F) of electrical charge, similar to supercapacitors currently on the market. The material can be recharged hundreds of times and each charge only takes a few seconds. It's a dream product in a world that requires new methods for storing renewable energy –from a windy day to a calm one, from a sunny day to one with heavy cloud cover. "Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time," says Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics and co-author of an article on the research just published in Advanced Science. "What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets." Other co-authors are researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Innventia, the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Kentucky in the US. Power paper looks and feels like a slightly plastic-y paper and the researchers have amused themselves by making an origami swan from one piece, giving an indication of its strength. The structural foundation of the material is nanocellulose, which is produced when normal cellulose fibers are broken down by high-pressure water into fibers just 20nm in diameter. The researchers place this nanocellulose in a solution of water and then add the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, which forms a thin coating around the fibers. "The covered fibres are in tangles, where the liquid in the spaces between them functions as an electrolyte," explains Jesper Edberg, a doctoral student. Edberg conducted the experiments together with Abdellah Malti, who recently completed his doctorate. The new cellulose-polymer material has already set a world record in simultaneous conductivity for ions and electrons, which explains its exceptional capacity for energy storage, but could achieve even higher capacity with further development. Unlike the batteries and capacitors currently on the market, power paper is produced from simple materials, is lightweight, requires no dangerous chemicals or heavy metals, and is waterproof. The power paper project has been financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation since 2012. "They leave us to our research, without demanding lengthy reports, and they trust us," says Magnus Berggren, director of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics. "We have a lot of pressure on us to deliver, but it's okay if it takes time, and we're grateful for that. The challenge now is to develop an industrial-scale process for producing the power paper. "Together with KTH, Acreo and Innventia we just received SEK 34 million from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to continue our efforts to develop a rational production method, a paper machine for power paper," says Berggren. This story is adapted from material from Linköping University, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.


One sheet, 15 centimetres in diameter and a few tenths of a millimetre thick can store as much as 1 F, which is similar to the supercapacitors currently on the market. The material can be recharged hundreds of times and each charge only takes a few seconds. It's a dream product in a world where the increased use of renewable energy requires new methods for energy storage—from summer to winter, from a windy day to a calm one, from a sunny day to one with heavy cloud cover. "Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time. What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets," says Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics and co-author to the article just published in Advanced Science. Other co-authors are researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Innventia, Technical University of Denmark and the University of Kentucky. The material, power paper, looks and feels like a slightly plasticky paper and the researchers have amused themselves by using one piece to make an origami swan—which gives an indication of its strength. The structural foundation of the material is nanocellulose, which is cellulose fibres which, using high-pressure water, are broken down into fibres as thin as 20 nm in diameter. With the cellulose fibres in a solution of water, an electrically charged polymer (PEDOT:PSS), also in a water solution, is added. The polymer then forms a thin coating around the fibres. "The covered fibres are in tangles, where the liquid in the spaces between them functions as an electrolyte," explains Jesper Edberg, doctoral student, who conducted the experiments together with Abdellah Malti, who recently completed his doctorate. The new cellulose-polymer material has set a new world record in simultaneous conductivity for ions and electrons, which explains its exceptional capacity for energy storage. It also opens the door to continued development toward even higher capacity. Unlike the batteries and capacitors currently on the market, power paper is produced from simple materials - renewable cellulose and an easily available polymer. It is light in weight, it requires no dangerous chemicals or heavy metals and it is waterproof. The Power Papers project has been financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation since 2012. "They leave us to our research, without demanding lengthy reports, and they trust us. We have a lot of pressure on us to deliver, but it's ok if it takes time, and we're grateful for that," says Professor Magnus Berggren, director of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University. The new power paper is just like regular pulp, which has to be dehydrated when making paper. The challenge is to develop an industrial-scale process for this. "Together with KTH, Acreo and Innventia we just received SEK 34 million from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to continue our efforts to develop a rational production method, a paper machine for power paper," says Professor Berggren. More information: Abdellah Malti et al. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics, Advanced Science (2015). DOI: 10.1002/advs.201500305


News Article | December 3, 2015
Site: www.rdmag.com

Researchers at Linköping University's Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Sweden, have developed power paper -- a new material with an outstanding ability to store energy. The material consists of nanocellulose and a conductive polymer. The results have been published in Advanced Science. One sheet, 15 centimetres in diameter and a few tenths of a millimetre thick can store as much as 1 F, which is similar to the supercapacitors currently on the market. The material can be recharged hundreds of times and each charge only takes a few seconds. It's a dream product in a world where the increased use of renewable energy requires new methods for energy storage -- from summer to winter, from a windy day to a calm one, from a sunny day to one with heavy cloud cover. "Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time. What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets," says Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics and co-author to the article just published in Advanced Science. Other co-authors are researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Innventia, Technical University of Denmark and the University of Kentucky. The material, power paper, looks and feels like a slightly plasticky paper and the researchers have amused themselves by using one piece to make an origami swan -- which gives an indication of its strength. The structural foundation of the material is nanocellulose, which is cellulose fibres which, using high-pressure water, are broken down into fibres as thin as 20 nm in diameter. With the cellulose fibres in a solution of water, an electrically charged polymer (PEDOT:PSS), also in a water solution, is added. The polymer then forms a thin coating around the fibres. "The covered fibres are in tangles, where the liquid in the spaces between them functions as an electrolyte," explains Jesper Edberg, doctoral student, who conducted the experiments together with Abdellah Malti, who recently completed his doctorate. The new cellulose-polymer material has set a new world record in simultaneous conductivity for ions and electrons, which explains its exceptional capacity for energy storage. It also opens the door to continued development toward even higher capacity. Unlike the batteries and capacitors currently on the market, power paper is produced from simple materials - renewable cellulose and an easily available polymer. It is light in weight, it requires no dangerous chemicals or heavy metals and it is waterproof. The Power Papers project has been financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation since 2012. "They leave us to our research, without demanding lengthy reports, and they trust us. We have a lot of pressure on us to deliver, but it's ok if it takes time, and we're grateful for that," says Professor Magnus Berggren, director of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University. The new power paper is just like regular pulp, which has to be dehydrated when making paper. The challenge is to develop an industrial-scale process for this. "Together with KTH, Acreo and Innventia we just received SEK 34 million from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to continue our efforts to develop a rational production method, a paper machine for power paper," says Professor Berggren.


News Article | December 2, 2015
Site: www.nature.com

Göran Gustafsson looks at people and thinks of cars — the ageing models that rolled off assembly lines a few decades ago. Today, says Gustafsson, cars are packed with cutting-edge sensors, computers and sophisticated communications systems that warn of problems when they are still easy to fix, which is why modern vehicles rarely surprise their drivers with catastrophic breakdowns. “Why don't we have a similar vision for our bodies?” wonders Gustafsson, an engineer whose team at the Swedish electronics company Acreo, based in Kista, is one of many around the world trying to make such a vision possible. Instead of letting health problems go undetected until a person ends up in hospital — the medical equivalent of a roadside breakdown — these teams foresee a future in which humans are wired up like cars, with sensors that form a similar early-warning system. Working with researchers at Linköping University in Sweden, Gustafsson's team has developed skin-surface and implanted sensors, as well as an in-body intranet that can link devices while keeping them private. Other groups are developing technologies ranging from skin patches that sense arterial stiffening — a signal of a looming heart attack — to devices that detect epileptic fits and automatically deliver drugs directly to affected areas of the brain. These next-generation devices are designed to function alongside tissue, rather than be isolated from it like most pacemakers and other electronic devices already used in the body. But making this integration work is no easy feat, especially for materials scientists, who must shrink circuits radically, make flexible and stretchable electronics that are imperceptible to tissue, and find innovative ways to create interfaces with the body. Achieving Gustafsson's vision — in which devices monitor and treat the body day in, day out — will also require both new power sources and new ways of transmitting information. Still, the potential to improve health care substantially while reducing its costs has drawn both researchers and physicians to the challenge, says John Rogers, a materials scientist at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. “I haven't found any clinical folks who say 'That's pie in the sky, come back to me in 20 years,'” he says. “They say, 'Wow, that's cool. Here are three ways we can use it today, and how do we get started on a collaboration?'.” Sensors woven into the body are a natural extension of handheld smartphones and wearable devices, says Rogers. “I think electronics is coming at you,” he says. “It's migrating closer and closer and I think it's a very natural thing to imagine that they will eventually become intimately integrated with the body.” The first step beyond wearables will be wireless sensors mounted directly on the skin, where they can pick up a host of vital signs, including temperature, pulse and breathing rate. Unfortunately, says Rogers, “biology involves bending, stretching and swelling”, which makes conventional electronics built from stiff silicon wafers a very poor choice for such sensors. His team has developed 'epidermal electronics': flexible, biodegradable stick-on patches that are crammed with sensors but almost imperceptible to the user. Attached like temporary tattoos, the patches use normal silicon electronics, but thinned down and transferred to a flexible backing using a rubber stamp1. The patches draw power either from nearby magnetic fields or by harvesting radio waves, using S-shaped wires and antennas designed to stretch, twist and bend. “They adopt a wavy kind of geometry, so when you stretch, the wave shapes can change, like accordion bellows,” says Rogers. Rogers has co-founded a spin-off company — MC10, based in Lexington, Massachusetts — that next year will start marketing versions of the device as BioStamps: temporary patches that measure heart electrical activity, hydration, body temperature and exposure to ultraviolet light. The patches will be available to consumers first, says Rogers, but his real target is medicine. Results are expected soon from a trial at the neonatal intensive-care unit at Carle Foundation Hospital in Urbana, where doctors are using the patches to monitor the vital signs of newborn babies without the need for intrusive cables and scanners. MC10 is also collaborating with Brussels-based pharmaceutical company UCB on tests of a patch that monitors tremors in people with Parkinson's disease, to track their illness and whether they are taking their medication. Rogers' patches are relatively small, but at the University of Tokyo, engineer Takao Someya has created a sensor-laden electronic skin that can be made in much larger pieces2. His latest film is just 1 micrometre thick, and so light that it floats like a feather, yet it is robust enough to cope with the stretching and crumpling needed to flex with an elbow or knee. It can provide readouts on temperature — heat in a wound can signal infection — moisture, pulse and oxygen concentration in the blood. Someya achieves this by ditching silicon altogether, and instead using inherently soft organic components made of carbon-based polymers and other materials. Organic circuits can be printed onto a plastic film, making them cheap and easy to produce in large quantities. And they are versatile: they work in both high-temperature and water-based environments. Skin also inspires Zhenan Bao, an engineer at Stanford University in California. Her team creates thin pressure sensors by sandwiching micrometre-scale rubber pyramids between films3. Even a slight touch will compress the pyramids' tips, changing how electric current flows between the films. The sensors can be used in heart monitors that track how fast pressure waves pass through arteries. This can reveal increased stiffness in the vessels — a predictor of heart attacks. Last year, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a wireless pressure sensor that can be implanted inside the hearts of people with advanced heart disease; Bao's device could do a similar job from the surface of the skin. As useful as skin-mounted patches might be, much more information is available deeper in the body. “There's a reason why at the hospital, they draw your blood,” says Michael Strano, a chemical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. “There are markers in blood that are exquisitely good at predicting disease.” But delving deeper brings fresh challenges. Ideally, says Strano, sensors under the skin should be not only non-toxic, but also stable enough to function inside the body for years at a time if need be, and biocompatible — meaning that they don't trigger the body's immune response. Yet most current devices fall short on one score or another. For example, sensors that detect chemical signals in the blood called biomarkers often use biological materials that degrade very quickly. This is a severe limitation for the advanced, real-time sensors that are currently used to monitor glucose in people with diabetes, says Strano: the devices detect glucose with an enzyme reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide. This degrades the sensors so quickly that they must be replaced within weeks. To get around that, Strano's lab has developed synthetic, long-lived detector materials that can be mixed with a water-based gel and injected under the skin like a tattoo. The 'ink' for this tattoo consists of carbon nanotubes coated with dangling polymer strands, which have a lock-and-key chemical structure that recognizes biomarkers by dictating which molecules can dock with them4. When biomarkers bind to the polymer, they subtly change the optical properties of the nanotube: shine a light on the tattoo, and a glow reveals the presence of the biomarker. Strano and his team have developed carbon-nanotube sensors to monitor nitric oxide in blood5 — an inflammatory marker that can indicate infection or even cancer — and are working on glucose and cortisol, a stress biomarker that may prove useful for monitoring post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders. The nitric oxide sensor worked for 400 days in mice, which to Strano's knowledge is the longest any implanted chemical sensor has been in place, and did so without provoking any immune response. For many other kinds of device, the jury is still out. “For electronic materials, especially plastic-based and organics, it's still unknown what their long-term effects are,” says Bao. Now Strano is starting work with MIT engineer Daniel Anderson on devices that could combine sensors with drug-delivery systems. They hope to adapt microchips pioneered by fellow MIT engineer Robert Langer to respond to a range of triggers by releasing the appropriate drugs, encased in polymer capsules. The first human trial of a drug-delivering 'pharmacy on a chip' — without the sensors — was in 2012, in eight women with osteoporosis6. It will be a long time before such devices can be used to detect diseases reliably and treat them automatically, except perhaps for diabetes, which has been extensively studied. Strano's devices are good at binding only with their target molecules, but big questions remain about what fluctuations in biomarker signals actually mean in terms of health, he says. His team is modelling biomarkers in the body, to help to decide where the sensor needs to be and how quickly it should to react to give useful information. “Often you need to rely on many different sensory parameters to make a decision. It's not enough that one chemical is over-expressed,” says Magnus Berggren, an electronic engineer at Linköping University who is collaborating with Gustafsson. Some researchers' targets lie still deeper in the body, and for them, flexibility and biocompatibility are even more important. If a rigid sensor rubs against a moving organ such as the heart or the brain, in which the cells shift slight as the animal breathes, the body will quickly surround it with a wall of scar tissue. And if sensors move relative to the organ, the results will be unreliable in any case. Bioelectronics engineer George Malliaras at the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in Gardanne, France, and his colleagues are among those developing flexible replacements for the relatively rigid sensors currently used to track distinctive electrical patterns in the brains of people with epilepsy or Parkinson's disease. Made of organic, conducting polymers, these flexible electronics respond to chemical signals — the flow of ions that generates the electrical patterns. This not only increases sensitivity, but also lets researchers “interface with biology in a wholly different fashion”, he says. The team's latest device, tested in rats as well as in two humans undergoing surgery for epilepsy7, has detected the firing of individual neurons, says Malliaras. And if the process is reversed, he adds, the sensor can be used to deliver drugs. Devices known as organic electronic ion pumps respond to an applied voltage by forcing drugs — small charged particles — out of a reservoir. Working with the group at Linköping University and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Marseilles, Malliaras's team is coupling his epilepsy sensor to an ion pump that responds to seizures by releasing epilepsy drugs into the correct part of the brain8. Berggren and the Linköping team have used a similar technique to develop a 'pacemaker for pain' that delivers analgesics directly to the spinal cord9. Any electrical device is limited by its need for power. Devices that sit on or near the skin can incorporate antennas that harvest power wirelessly — as long as an external source is nearby. But sensors deeper in the body often have to rely on batteries, which are bulky and need replacing. And some, such as Berggren's pain-relief pump, need to have wires threaded through the overlying tissues — an arrangement that is both cumbersome and a potential route for infection (see 'Wired for life'). To get around such problems, Zhong Lin Wang, a nanoscientist at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, has spent the past decade trying to harvest the tiny amounts of mechanical energy generated when people walk or even breathe. “We started thinking, how do we convert body motion into electricity?” he says. His latest design uses static electricity — long thought of as a nuisance — to convert the movement of inhaling and exhaling into enough energy to power a pacemaker10. The generator uses two different polymer surfaces, sandwiched between electrodes and connected in a circuit. When the user breathes in and out, the surfaces touch and separate, swapping electrons — the same thing that happens when a balloon is stroked with a wool cloth. The build-up of charge causes current to flow through the wire. “Inhale and exhale, move back and forth or drive up and down and you generate power,” says Wang. Starting in 2014, Wang began testing the system in rats, creating milliwatts of energy from a device the thickness of a few sheets of paper. Now his team is testing the same technology in pigs. Rogers' team has created11 a biodegradable battery using electrodes made of magnesium and other metals that are safe in low concentrations and that slowly dissolve in the body. “Some devices you want to last the life of the patient. In others, you only need and want the device to be temporary,” says Rogers. The technology could be revolutionary, but the vision of a wired-up body that sends data to an outside computer or medical centre faces a threat that already troubles the wearables industry: hacking. “When a semiconductor chip is introduced inside the body, hacking is a truly serious issue,” says Someya. One solution is to analyse data on the device itself, reducing the amount that gets sent over the airwaves. Another is to avoid the airwaves altogether. In as-yet-unpublished work, the Swedish team has developed an in-body intranet that transmits signals at low frequency using the body's water as its wires. To send information between devices, or from a device to a smartphone, users must physically touch the objects with their hands. This keeps the signals low-power and private, and avoids clogging up the data-transmitting frequencies that are already squabbled over by mobile phones and wireless routers. “It's only transmitted and exposed within your body,” adds Berggren, who says that the system can already exchange data between electronically labelled objects through the body to a smartphone, and will soon integrate on-skin sensors. However good the devices, pioneers of new materials will also struggle against a tide of medical regulation, says Malliaras. That, along with the concerns of chemical suppliers who are afraid that failing devices could leave them vulnerable to lawsuits, “puts a big brake on the adoption of new materials”, he says. Berggren and his collaborators at Acreo are among the first to try to connect a range of devices by wiring up humans. But they readily acknowledge that making the vision a reality will require multiple companies and research teams, as well as the involvement of insurance companies and health-care providers. Berggren knows that there are big hurdles. “The challenge is to put everything together,” he says. “But they did it for the car industry and it's impressive. You rarely see cars standing along the side of the road waiting for repair. Whether it's possible to do this also for humans is still a question mark, but it's definitely worth trying.” Malliaras agrees. “A car you usually keep for less than ten years,” he says. “A body you want to keep for 80 or 90 years; it's a lot more precious.”


Bakowski M.,Acreo | Lim J-K.,Acreo | Kaplan W.,Acreo
ECS Transactions | Year: 2012

The SiC Schottky barrier diodes for 200°C to 250°C operation have been developed using buried grid (BG) technology. 2A and 10A, 1700V BG JBS diodes have been fabricated and evaluated. Manufactured 10A, 1700V BG JBS diodes have leakage current at least three orders of magnitude lower compared to the typical data sheet values of the commercial devices. The leakage current at 250°C is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commercial devices at 175°C. The two alternative technologies for realization of BG, implantation and epitaxy, have been compared by simulations. The epitaxial grid is shown to have superior potential for best trade-off between on-state voltage and leakage current. © The Electrochemical Society.

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