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Osterberg R.E.,Aclairo Pharmaceutical Development Group Inc. | DeMerlis C.C.,Colorcon Ltd | Hobson D.W.,LoneStar PharmTox LLC | McGovern T.J.,Scilucent LLC
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2011

Excipients are used in all drug products and in most food products. New technologies are being tested to increase the amount or rate of absorption of drugs and new and novel excipients may be included among them. New physical approaches such as nanoparticles of drug and excipients or lysosomes may offer better drug delivery especially of hard to absorb or difficult to formulate oral drugs. New excipients may improve or mask the flavor of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements. Recently, impurities in drug products have become subject to greater scrutiny and various international and national guidelines, guidances, and regulations have been proposed and accepted for use; excipient evaluation is included in these efforts. This symposium discussed new developmental concepts, guidelines/guidances and regulations involving impurities in excipients, new drug delivery systems involving excipients, and thoughts for possible improvement to these guidelines to promote faster regulatory acceptance of these substances. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

Blystone C.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kissling G.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bishop J.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chapin R.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 4 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

Deriving No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) or bench-mark dose is important for risk assessment and can be influenced by study design considerations. In order to define the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dose-response curve for reproductive malformations, we retained more offspring to adulthood to improve detection of these malformations in the reproductive assessment by continuous breeding study design. Sprague-Dawley rats were given a dietary administration of 1.5 (control), 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000, 7500, and 10,000 ppm DEHP. Male pups were evaluated for gross reproductive tract malformations (RTMs) associated with the "phthalate syndrome." DEHP treatment had minimal effects on P0 males. There was a statistically significant increase in F1 and F2 total RTMs (testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate) in the 7500-ppm dose group and F1 10,000-ppm dose group. The 10,000-ppm exposed F1 males did not produce an F2 generation. The NOAEL for F1 and F2 RTM combined data, because in utero exposures were similar, were 100 ppm (4.8 mg/kg/day), which was close to the 5% response benchmark dose lower confidence limit of 142 ppm. The utility of evaluating more pups per litter was examined by generating power curves from a Monte Carlo simulation. These curves indicate a substantial increase in detection rate when three males are evaluated per litter rather than one. A 10% effect across male pups would be detected 5% of the time if one pup per litter was evaluated, but these effects would be detected 66% of the time if three pups per litter were evaluated. Taken together, this study provides a well-defined dose response of DEHP-induced RTMs and demonstrates that retention of more adult F1 and F2 males per litter, animals that were already produced, increases the ability to detect RTMs and presumably other low-incidence phenomena. Published by Oxford University Press 2010. Source

Lewis E.M.,Charles River Laboratories | Hoberman A.M.,Charles River Laboratories | Fong K.-L.,Aptuit Consulting Inc. | Schatz P.J.,Affymax Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Aperi- and postnatal reproduction toxicity study was conducted in rats treated with Hematide, a synthetic PEGylated peptidic erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA). METHODS: Hematide, at IV doses of 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg/kg, was administered from implantation through lactation on gestation days (GDs) 5 and 18 and lactation day (LD) 13. RESULTS: Hematide induced pronounced polycythemia in all Hematide-treated dams. On LDs 2 and 21, hemoglobin (Hgb) increases above control levels were 3.1, 5.2, and 5.0 g/dL and 4.1, 5.1, and 5.5 g/dL at the 0.5, 3, and 15 mg/kg/dose, respectively. There were no effects on parturition, lactation, or maternal behavior in the F0 generation female rats. A slight decrease in pup viability on postpartum days 2-4 and lower body weights and/or body weight gain for the F1 generation were associated with pronounced polycythemia and decreases in maternal body weight gain and/or food consumption at ≥3 mg/kg/dose. Hematide fetal exposure was negligible. No Hematide effect, other than on growth and survival, was noted on developmental, functional, mating, and fertility end points in the F1 generation rats, and no effect on litter or fetal parameters was observed in the F2 generation. The maternal no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Hematide was 0.5 mg/kg, and the NOAEL for parturition and maternal behavior was 15 mg/kg. The NOAEL for F1 pup viability and growth was 0.5 mg/kg/dose. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the Hematide-associated adverse findings were attributed to exaggerated erythropoiesis (pronounced and prolonged polycythemia) resulting from administration of an ESA to pregnant animals. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Woodburn K.W.,Affymax Inc. | Schatz P.J.,Affymax Inc. | Wilson S.,Aclairo Pharmaceutical Development Group Inc. | Fong K.-L.,Aptuit Consulting Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Drug and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Peginesatide is a PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) that was designed and engineered to stimulate specifically the erythropoietin receptor dimer that governs erythropoiesis. Clinical use of peginesatide is anticipated to result in chronic dosing in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and the nonclinical data to support development should include an evaluation of carcinogenic potential evaluation. Peginesatide was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a standard genotoxicity battery of tests. Doses for a rasH2 transgenic mouse carcinogenicity assay were defined in a 28-day study in the wild-type littermates of the rasH2 transgenic mouse strain, using intravenous doses of 1-mg/kg on days 1 and 22. The findings were consistent with exaggerated pharmacology, including polycythemia, with associated increases in hemoglobin level and extramedullary hematopoiesis and bone marrow hypercellularity. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Woodburn K.W.,Affymax Inc. | Holmes C.P.,Affymax Inc. | Wilson S.D.,Aclairo Pharmaceutical Development Group Inc. | Fong K.-L.,Accellient Partners LLC | And 3 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2012

The pharmacokinetics (PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide, a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.15 mg·kg-1 IV using unlabeled or [ 14C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism were evaluated following IV administration of 5 mg·kg -1 [14C]-peginesatide, with tissue distribution also evaluated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) following an IV dose of 17 mg·kg-1 [14C]-peginesatide. Plasma clearance was slow and elimination was biphasic with unchanged peginesatide representing >90% of the total radioactivity of the total radioactive exposure. Slow uptake of the radiolabeled compound from the vascular compartment into the tissues was observed. Biodistribution to bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoietic sites, and to highly vascularized lymphatic and excretory tissues occurred. A predominant degradation event to occur in vivo was the loss of one PEG chain from the branched PEG moiety to generate mono-PEG. Renal excretion was the primary mechanism (41%) of elimination, with parent molecule (67%) the major moiety excreted. In conclusion, elimination of [14C]- peginesatide-derived radioactivity was extended, retention preferentially occurred at sites of erythropoiesis (bone marrow), and urinary excretion was the primary elimination route. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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