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Daivadanam M.,Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies | Thankappan K.R.,Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies | Sarma P.S.,Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies | Harikrishnan S.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: India contributes a significant number of deaths attributed to coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to the rest of the world. Data on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the major cause of deaths in CAD, are limited in the literature. We estimated the magnitude of CHE and studied the strategies used to cope with CHE. Methods: Two hundred and ten ACS patients (mean age 56 yr, 83% men) were randomly selected proportionately from six hospitals in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Information on demographics, ACS-related out-of-pocket expenditure and coping strategies was collected using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. CHE, defined as ACS-related expenditures exceeding 40 per cent of a household's capacity to pay, was estimated using the World Health Organization methods. Health security was defined as protection against out-of-pocket expenditure through an employer or government provided social security scheme. Socio-demographic variables, effect on participants' employment, loans or asset sales for treatment purposes, health security coverage and type of treatment were considered as potential correlates of CHE. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the correlates of CHE. Results: CHE was experienced by 84 per cent (95% CI: 79.04, 88.96) of participants as a consequence of treating ACS. Participants belonging to low socio-economic status (SES) were 15 times (odds ratio (OR): 14.51, 95% CI: 1.69-124.41), whose jobs were adversely affected were seven times (OR: 7.21, CI: 1.54-33.80), who had no health security were six times (OR: 6.00, CI: 2.02-17.81) and who underwent any intervention were three times (OR: 3.24, CI: 1.03-10.16) more likely to have CHE compared to their counterparts. The coping strategies adopted by the participants were loans (41%), savings (14%), health insurance (8%) and a combination of the above (37%). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that viable financing mechanism for treating ACS is warranted to prevent CHE particularly among low SES participants, those having no health security, requiring intervention procedures and those with adversely affected employment. Source

Thankappan K.R.,Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies | Shah B.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Mathur P.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology | Sarma P.S.,Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Kerala State is a harbinger of what will happen in future to the rest of India in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD). We assessed: (i) the burden of NCD risk factors; (ii) estimated the relations of behavioural risk factors to socio-demographic correlates, anthropometric risk factors with behavioural risk factors; (iii) evaluated if socio-demographic, behavioural and anthropometric risk factors predicted biochemical risk factors; and (iv) estimated awareness, treatment and adequacy of control of hypertension and diabetes, in Kerala state. Methods: A total of 7449 individuals (51% women) stratified by age group, sex and place of residence were selected and information on behavioural risk factors; tobacco use, diet, physical activity, alcohol use, measured anthropometry, blood pressure was collected. Fasting blood samples were analysed for blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in a sample subset. Using multiple logistic regression models the associations between socio-demographic and anthropometric variables with biochemical risk factors were estimated. Results: The burden of NCD risk factors was high in our sample. Prevalence of behavioural and each of the biochemical risk factors increased with age, adjusting for other factors including sex and the place of residence. The odds ratios relating anthropometric variables to biochemical variables were modest, suggesting that anthropometric variables may not be useful surrogates for biochemical risk factors for population screening purposes. Interpretation & conclusions: In this large study of community-based sample in Kerala, high burden of NCD risk factors was observed, comparable to that in the United States. These data may serve to propel multisectoral efforts to lower the community burden of NCD risk factors in India in general, and in Kerala, in particular. Source

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