Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.

Bangalore, India

Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.

Bangalore, India
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Robinson A.M.,Saint Mary's University, Halifax | Zhao L.,Saint Mary's University, Halifax | Shah Alam M.Y.,Saint Mary's University, Halifax | Bhandari P.,Achira Labs. Pvt. Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2015

The demand for methods and technologies capable of rapid, inexpensive and continuous monitoring of health status or exposure to environmental pollutants persists. In this work, the development of novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates from metal-coated silk fabric, known as zari, presents the potential for SERS substrates to be incorporated into clothing and other textiles for the routine monitoring of important analytes, such as disease biomarkers or environmental pollutants. Characterization of the zari fabric was completed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared, characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, and used to treat fabric samples by incubation, drop-coating and in situ synthesis. The quality of the treated fabric was evaluated by collecting the SERS signal of 4,4′-bipyridine on these substrates. When AgNPs were drop-coated on the fabric, sensitive and reproducible substrates were obtained. Adenine was selected as a second probe molecule, because it dominates the SERS signal of DNA, which is an important class of disease biomarker, particularly for pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Excellent signal enhancement could be achieved on these affordable substrates, suggesting that the developed fabric chips have the potential for expanding the use of SERS as a diagnostic and environmental monitoring tool for application in wearable sensor technologies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Bhandari P.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Narahari T.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Dendukuri D.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2011

Low cost and scalable manufacture of lab-on-chip devices for applications such as point-of-care testing is an urgent need. Weaving is presented as a unified, scalable and low-cost platform for the manufacture of fabric chips that can be used to perform such testing. Silk yarns with different properties are first selected, treated with the appropriate reagent solutions, dried and handloom-woven in one step into an integrated fabric chip. This platform has the unique advantage of scaling up production using existing and low cost physical infrastructure. We have demonstrated the ability to create pre-defined flow paths in fabric by using wetting and non-wetting silk yarns and a Jacquard attachment in the loom. Further, we show that yarn parameters such as the yarn twist frequency and weaving coverage area may be conveniently used to tune both the wicking rate and the absorptive capacity of the fabric. Yarns optimized for their final function were used to create an integrated fabric chip containing reagent-coated yarns. Strips of this fabric were then used to perform a proof-of-concept immunoassay with sample flow taking place by capillary action and detection being performed by a visual readout. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Dendukuri D.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Bhandari P.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Choudhary T.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Sridharan S.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Shalini S.V.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.
17th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2013 | Year: 2013

We are developing weaving as a platform to manufacture microfluidic chips for different biological assays. Our work advances published results [1] that showed proof-of-concept of the platform by demonstrating immunoassays performed with spiked human urine samples that show that fabric strips can be used to replace current lateral flow assays. In addition, we also report for the first time, concepts for multiplexing tests on fabric and also how electrochemical sensors can be manufactured by weaving electrodes into fabric. We believe such sensors represent a new class of microfludic devices which could be integrated into clothing. Copyright © (2013) by the Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society All rights reserved.


Abhishek K.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Haloi M.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Channappayya S.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad | Vanjari S.R.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad | And 4 more authors.
2014 20th National Conference on Communications, NCC 2014 | Year: 2014

Home pregnancy kits typically provide a qualitative (yes/no) result based on the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine samples. We present an algorithm that converts this purely qualitative test into a semiquantitative one by processing digital images of the test kit's output. The algorithm identifies the test and control lines in the image and classifies an input into one of four different hCG concentration levels based on the color of the test line. The proposed algorithm provides significant improvement over a prior method and reduces the maximum false positive rate to less than 5%. This improvement is achieved by a careful choice of the color space so as to maximize the inter-concentration separability. Also, the proposed method increases the utility of the test kits by providing useful diagnostic information. Furthermore, the algorithm could be ported to a mobile platform to make it particularly helpful in remote rural health monitoring. © 2014 IEEE.


Choudhary T.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Rajamanickam G.P.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Dendukuri D.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2015

We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Modali A.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd | Vanjari S.R.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad | Dendukuri D.,Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd
Electroanalysis | Year: 2016

In this paper, we demonstrate a woven electrochemical biosensor patch as a low cost, robust wearable sensor for non-invasive diagnostics. The critical requirement for wearable sensors is their robustness which necessitates the output signal to be independent of the deformation that the sensor system could potentially undergo. In this work, the performance of woven electrode patch post standard deformations such as bending and twisting were analysed using chronoamperometric detection of lactate, a sweat borne analyte, as a model system. In spite of rigorous deformation, the CV was well within 13 %, indicating the applicability of woven electrode patch as a low cost, robust, wearable, non-invasive electrochemical biosensor platform. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


PubMed | Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lab on a chip | Year: 2011

Low cost and scalable manufacture of lab-on-chip devices for applications such as point-of-care testing is an urgent need. Weaving is presented as a unified, scalable and low-cost platform for the manufacture of fabric chips that can be used to perform such testing. Silk yarns with different properties are first selected, treated with the appropriate reagent solutions, dried and handloom-woven in one step into an integrated fabric chip. This platform has the unique advantage of scaling up production using existing and low cost physical infrastructure. We have demonstrated the ability to create pre-defined flow paths in fabric by using wetting and non-wetting silk yarns and a Jacquard attachment in the loom. Further, we show that yarn parameters such as the yarn twist frequency and weaving coverage area may be conveniently used to tune both the wicking rate and the absorptive capacity of the fabric. Yarns optimized for their final function were used to create an integrated fabric chip containing reagent-coated yarns. Strips of this fabric were then used to perform a proof-of-concept immunoassay with sample flow taking place by capillary action and detection being performed by a visual readout.


Patent
Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd. | Date: 2015-10-05

The invention relates to a diagnostic element. The diagnostic element comprises an inlet passage, a holding port and an outlet passage. The holding port is capable of encapsulating a diagnostic gel. The invention also relates to a diagnostic device that comprises at least one inlet port, a preparation port, a diagnostic element that comprises an inlet passage, a holding port, an outlet passage and an outlet port.


Patent
Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd | Date: 2010-09-03

In one aspect, the invention provides a method for making a hydrophilic-silk composition. The method includes providing at least one strand of silk fiber, treating the silk fiber with an alkaline solution to provide at least one strand of degummed silk fiber, and treating the degummed silk fiber with a treatment solution to provide a hydrophilic-silk drophilic-silk composition. The degummed silk fiber or the hydrophilic-silk composition is further immobilized with at least one reagent to make a silk-based diagnostic composition. The invention provides a silk-based diagnostic composition made by the method of the invention, and a diagnostic device that comprises the silk-based diagnostic composition. In another aspect, the invention provides a method of making a diagnostic device. The method includes providing at least one strand of a diagnostic-fiber composition, providing at least one strand of a hydrophobic-fiber composition, inter-weaving the at least one strand of the diagnostic-fiber composition and the at least one strand of the hydrophobic-fiber composition. In one embodiment, the diagnostic-fiber composition and the hydrophobic-fiber composition are both based on silk.


PubMed | Achira Labs Pvt. Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lab on a chip | Year: 2015

We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

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