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Mohanta A.,Utkal University | Mohanty P.K.,Utkal University | Parida G.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2015

Aim: During the present investigation, two types of keratinized round cells (KRCs), large keratinized round cells (LKRCs) and small keratinized round cells (SKRCs), were observed in the exfoliated buccal smears of oral cancer patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the practical utility of KRCs during difficult diagnosis and in the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) through cytomorphometric analysis. Materials and Methods: In a hospital-based case control study, exfoliated scrape smears were collected from 136 patients clinically diagnosed as suffering from pre-cancerous lesions and OSCC and a parallel set of 136 samples were also collected from non-addicted and non-cancerous healthy individuals from different regions of Odisha, and this was considered as the control group. Wet-fixed smears were stained by adopting Papanicolaou's staining protocol and counter-stained with Giemsa's solution. One thousand cells were screened and keratinized round cells along with other cytological atypia were scored. Cytomorphometry was carried out using a computer-assisted Cat Cam 1.30 (1.3 Mega Pixel) microscope camera. The findings were statistically analyzed and interpreted with respect to oral sites, age groups and sexes. Results: Cytomorphometrically, the nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio of the LKRCs was 1:4.7 in males and 1:4.3 in females, and in SKRCs it was calculated to be 1:4.6 in males and 1:5.2 in females. Conclusion: Cellular keratinization, hyperchromasia and increased N/C ratios in both LKRCs and SKRCs indicates the state of malignancy and thus the present finding has a practical value in early detection and diagnosis of OSCC patients.


Das L.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Kokate S.B.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Rath S.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Rout N.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2016

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most potent factors leading to gastric carcinogenesis. The seven in absentia homologue (Siah2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which has been implicated in various cancers but its role in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis has not been established. We investigated the involvement of Siah2 in gastric cancer metastasis which was assessed by invasiveness and migration of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cancer cells. Cultured gastric cancer cells (GCCs) MKN45, AGS and Kato III showed significantly induced expression of Siah2, increased invasiveness and migration after being challenged with the pathogen. Siah2-expressing stable cells showed increased invasiveness and migration after H. pylori infection. Siah2 was transcriptionally activated by E26 transformation-specific sequence 2 (ETS2)- and Twist-related protein 1 (Twist1) induced in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. These transcription factors dose-dependently enhanced the aggressiveness of infected GCCs. Our data suggested that H. pylori-infected GCCs gained cell motility and invasiveness through Siah2 induction. As gastric cancer biopsy samples also showed highly induced expression of ETS2, Twist1 and Siah2 compared with noncancerous gastric tissue, we surmise that ETS2- and Twist1-mediated Siah2 up-regulation has potential diagnostic and prognostic significance and could be targeted for therapeutic purpose. ©2016 The Author(s). Published.


Mohanta A.,Utkal University | Mohanty P.K.,Utkal University | Parida G.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center
International Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: Cytopathology of human oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals cytological pleomorphism. In this investigation, cytometry was used in an attempt to analyse the importance of the rare occurrence of keratinized strap cells in the buccal mucosa of human oral neoplasms. Patients and methods: A case–control study was undertaken in which exfoliated cytosmears were collected, by scraping, from 136 clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients. Wet fixed cytosmears were stained by use of Papanicolaou’s staining  procedure and counter-stained with Giemsa’s solution. One thousand cells were screened, and keratinized strap (Anitschkow) cells (KSC-A) and other cytological atypias were counted. Cytomorphometry was performed by use of a computer-assisted microscope camera. The findings were analysed statistically and interpreted in respect of age group, oral site, and sex. Results: Transformation of an angulated and polygonal normal oral squamous cell into a keratinized narrow strip or ribbon-like flat projection results in what is called a keratinized strap cell (KSC). Nuclear pleomorphism in keratinized strap cells was observed to be narrow spindle, rod, and bar-shaped and to resemble Anitschkow cells. From the nature of the staining, the structural peculiarity, and the resemblance to Anitschkow cells, KSC, a rarely observed oral cytological atypia, were renamed as keratinized strap (Anitschkow) (KSC-A) cells. Cytometrically, the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio for KSC-A was calculated to be 1:11.2 for males and 1:11.3 for females; these are more than those for the normal counterparts. Conclusion: Rare occurrence, cellular keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, and increased N/C ratios for KSC-A in oral carcinoma, for both sexes, indicate a state of malignancy; this finding is, thus, of practical value for early detection and diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. © 2015, Japan Society of Clinical Oncology.


Rath S.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Anand A.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Ghosh N.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | Das L.,National Institute of Science Education and Research NISER | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Hypoxia promotes cancer progression, and metastasis. The major protein expressed in hypoxic solid cancer is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). We show that enhanced phosphorylation of a conventional protein kinase C isoform, PKCα, at threonine 638 (T638) by hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride induces HIF1α in nuclei of gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Moreover, phospho-T638-PKCα (P-PKCα) interacts with p300-HIF1α complex in the nuclei of hypoxic GECs and PKCα phosphorylation at T638 enhances transcriptional activity of HIF1α. High P-PKCα expression in neoplastic gastric cancer biopsy samples as compared to nonneoplastic samples suggests that P-PKCα might act as an indicator of gastric cancer progression. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Dash S.,Utkal University | Panda S.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center | Rout N.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center | Samantaray S.,Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2015

Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis. It can be pelvic or extra-pelvic. Abdominal scar endometriosis is an extra-pelvic endometriosis that can occur after surgery involving the uterus. Post-caesarean section, scar endometriosis is a rare event. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of disease tissue. We present a case of post-caesarean section abdominal scar endometriosis presenting as a tumor on the abdominal wall, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by cell block preparation.

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