Boyce, VA, United States
Boyce, VA, United States

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Alton E.W.,Imperial College London | Boushey H.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Garn H.,Sterna Biologicals | Green F.H.,University of Calgary | And 12 more authors.
Nucleic Acid Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Oligonucleotides (ONs) are an emerging class of drugs being developed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including the treatment of respiratory diseases by the inhalation route. As a class, their toxicity on human lungs has not been fully characterized, and predictive toxicity biomarkers have not been identified. To that end, identification of sensitive methods and biomarkers that can detect toxicity in humans before any long term and/or irreversible side effects occur would be helpful. In light of the public's greater interests, the Inhalation Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG) held expert panel discussions focusing on the potential toxicity of inhaled ONs and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of different monitoring techniques for use during the clinical evaluation of inhaled ON candidates. This white paper summarizes the key discussions and captures the panelists' perspectives and recommendations which, we propose, could be used as a framework to guide both industry and regulatory scientists in future clinical research to characterize and monitor the short and long term lung response to inhaled ONs. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


Henry S.P.,Ionis Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Seguin R.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Cavagnaro J.,Access BIO | Berman C.,Berman Consulting | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acid Therapeutics | Year: 2016

This article provides an overview of the discussions held by the Immunomodulatory Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group on complement activation induced by oligonucleotides, most notably the phosphorothioate-containing oligonucleotides. Alternative complement pathway activation in monkeys is a common effect of single-stranded phosphorothioate backbone oligonucleotides in toxicology studies. This article discusses the mechanism for activation, general investigational strategy, and the impact of various chemical modifications. The goal is to provide the best practice approach to characterizing this effect, understanding the implication of the species specificity, and the interpretation of clinical relevance. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.


Cavagnaro J.,Access BIO | Berman C.,Berman Consulting | Kornbrust D.,Preclinisight | White T.,Exponent, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acid Therapeutics | Year: 2014

This white paper summarizes the current consensus of the Reproductive Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group on strategies to assess potential reproductive and/or developmental toxicities of therapeutic oligonucleotides (ONs). The unique product characteristics of ONs require considerations when planning developmental and reproductive toxicology studies, including (a) chemical characteristics, (b) assessment of intended and unintended mechanism of action, and (c) the optimal exposure, including dosing regimen. Because experience across the various classes of ONs as defined by their chemical backbone is relatively limited, best practices cannot be defined. Rather, points to consider are provided to help in the design of science-based reproductive safety evaluation programs based upon product attributes. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Lilly Research Laboratories, Integrated Biologix GmbH, Bayer AG, Access BIO and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2015

PEGylation (the covalent binding of one or more polyethylene glycol molecules to another molecule) is a technology frequently used to improve the half-life and other pharmaceutical or pharmacological properties of proteins, peptides, and aptamers. To date, 11 PEGylated biopharmaceuticals have been approved and there is indication that many more are in nonclinical or clinical development. Adverse effects seen with those in toxicology studies are mostly related to the active part of the drug molecule and not to polyethylene glycol (PEG). In 5 of the 11 approved and 10 of the 17 PEGylated biopharmaceuticals in a 2013 industry survey presented here, cellular vacuolation is histologically observed in toxicology studies in certain organs and tissues. No other effects attributed to PEG alone have been reported. Importantly, vacuolation, which occurs mainly in phagocytes, has not been linked with changes in organ function in these toxicology studies. This article was authored through collaborative efforts of industry toxicologists/nonclinical scientists to address the nonclinical safety of large PEG molecules (>10 kilo Dalton) in PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. The impact of the PEG molecule on overall nonclinical safety assessments of PEGylated biopharmaceuticals is discussed, and toxicological information from a 2013 industry survey on PEGylated biopharmaceuticals under development is summarized. Results will contribute to the database of toxicological information publicly available for PEG and PEGylated biopharmaceuticals.


PubMed | Access BIO and University of Lisbon
Type: | Journal: European journal of pharmacology | Year: 2015

The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional normal animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development.


Lewis R.M.,Access Bio. | Cosenza M.E.,Amgen
Drug Information Journal | Year: 2010

On February 3-4, 2009, a DIA Workshop was held to review and discuss comparability challenges and issues for biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals. The workshop was held in the Washington, DC, area and was attended by representatives from the FDA and biotech and pharmaceutical industries. The expectation was to develop a consensus on which data are necessary to provide assurance of comparability for manufacturing changes made to biotechnology products during different stages of development or postmarketing. Numerous case studies were reviewed and discussed to build on best practices and recognize successful approaches to comparability. Copyright © 2010 Drug Information Association, Inc. All rights reserved.


Kornbrust D.,Preclinsight | Cavagnaro J.,Access Bio | Levin A.,Miragen Therapeutics | Foy J.,Celgene | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acid Therapeutics | Year: 2013

This document summarizes the current consensus opinion of the Exaggerated Pharmacology (EP) Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group on the appropriate strategies to assess potential adverse effects caused by an "exaggerated" degree of the intended pharmacologic activity of an oligonucleotide (ON). The Subcommittee focused its discussions primarily on the ON subclasses that impact expression of "host" (i.e., human gene products - antisense, small interfering RNAs, and related ONs that target messenger RNA), with later and more limited discussions on aptamer, immunostimulatory, and microRNA subclasses. It is expected that many of these principles will be relevant to other subclasses but will need to be carefully considered as those development programs advance towards clinical trials. The recommendations may also serve as a frame of reference when designing Good Laboratory Practice safety studies with ONs, with regard to the study design elements that address assessment of EP. It is also hoped that these recommendations will establish a foundation for discussion with regulatory agencies on this subject. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Choi M.Y.,University of California at San Diego | Widhopf G.F.,University of California at San Diego | Wu C.C.N.,University of California at San Diego | Cui B.,University of California at San Diego | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia | Year: 2015

Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncoembryonic antigen. Because of its expression on the cell surface of leukemia cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but not on normal B-cells or other postpartum tissues, ROR1 is an attractive candidate for targeted therapies. UC-961 is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal antibody that binds the extracellular domain of ROR1. In this article we outline some of the preclinical studies leading to an investigational new drug designation, enabling clinical studies in patients with CLL. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | Access BIO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization | Year: 2010

The ICH S6 guidance was developed to describe a rational science-based flexible approach to the preclinical evaluation for biotechnology-derived pharmaceutical products. It also suggested that some of the principles described may be suitable for plasma-derived therapeutics. Some of the specific concerns unique to protein-based therapeutics include complexity in structure and potential immunogenicity. S6 has been interpreted by some industry and regulatory authorities, often due to lack of experience with these types of products, as encouraging a broader or more conventional toxicology program similar to that normally conducted for small molecules. The guidance does encourage important and necessary preclinical evaluations but also recognizes the limitations of studies in non-relevant animal species because they are without pharmacological interaction with the biologic. In addition, studies of human proteins are often limited in useful chronic, reproductive and carcinogenic toxicity evaluations by the immunological response in animals. Thus the safety evaluation of biopharmaceuticals and plasma derivatives in animals has limitations that cannot be adequately addressed by the use of testing paradigms used for small molecule pharmaceuticals. S6 focuses evaluations on well-designed studies in relevant species for reasonable time periods to make the best use of available resources and enable clinical trials.


PubMed | University of California at San Diego and Access Bio
Type: | Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia | Year: 2015

Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncoembryonic antigen. Because of its expression on the cell surface of leukemia cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but not on normal B-cells or other postpartum tissues, ROR1 is an attractive candidate for targeted therapies. UC-961 is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal antibody that binds the extracellular domain of ROR1. In this article we outline some of the preclinical studies leading to an investigational new drug designation, enabling clinical studies in patients with CLL.

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