Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal
Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal

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Moreira N.,University of Porto | Moreira N.,Catholic University of Portugal | Valente L.M.P.,University of Porto | Castro-Cunha M.,ACC A. Coelho and Castro Lda. | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of heat treatment and the presence or absence of fish skin on the volatile composition of Senegalese sole muscle was studied. The volatile profile of Senegalese sole at different storage periods was also evaluated. All samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS and subjected to sensory evaluation. As expected, cooking enhanced the production/liberation of volatile compounds. Fish with the skin present, after cooking, had higher levels of sulphur compounds, 2-nonanone, ethyl octanoate and lower contents of hexanol and heptanol than skinned fish; moreover, the samples with the skin had a better overall sensory acceptability. During storage, changes on the volatile composition of Senegalese sole samples were found. The major differences were obtained after 2 weeks of storage. Compounds such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal, decanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-decen-1-al, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, benzaldehyde, 4-ethyl-benzaldehyde, 1-penten-3-ol, heptanol and (E)-2-octen-1-ol decreased after 2 weeks of storage, and other compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanal, 2-methyl-1-butanal, 2-heptanone, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl tetrasulphide and 2-methyltetrahydrothiophen-3-one increased. These differences were confirmed by sensory evaluation. Principal component analysis was applied to the chemical data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Borges P.,University of Porto | Borges P.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | Reis B.,University of Porto | Reis B.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

A growth trial was conducted to test the growth potential and nutrient utilization of Senegalese sole fed diets with increasing substitution of supplemental fish oil (FO) by vegetable oil (VO) blends. Triplicate groups of twenty Senegalese sole juveniles (12. g) were fed to satiation over a period of 12. weeks with 6 extruded diets containing 570. g protein/kg DM and 90. g lipid/kg DM. Two blends of VO were tested (A and B) with two FO substitution rates 50% (VO50A and VO50B) and 100% (VO100A and VO100B). A concomitant replacement of 50% fish meal and 50% FO (VO50PP), and a control diet (CTR) containing only FO, were also evaluated.After 12-weeks feeding the dietary treatments did not affect growth performance and final body composition. Muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced in all treatments compared to CTR, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was only reduced in the VO50PP group. FO substitution led to a general increase of muscle linoleic acid (18:2 n 6, LOA) with VO50PP inducing maximal levels (15% vs 6% in FO diet). Lipogenic enzymes (FAS, ME and G6PD) as well as long chain fatty acid elongation (elov5) and desaturation (δ4 desaturase) were not affected by dietary treatments. Results suggest that Senegalese sole can cope with high levels of VO without compromising growth performance or nutrient utilization. Despite differences in muscle fatty acid profile, fish fillet had good nutritional value. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Moreira N.,University of Porto | Moreira N.,Catholic University of Portugal | Soares S.,University of Porto | Valente L.M.P.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine differences among volatile compounds composition of Senegalese sole muscle fed with extruded diets containing different plant protein (PP) and vegetable oil (VO) sources. Two set of experiments were performed on growing sole. One growth trial used a control diet containing fish meal (FM) as the main protein source and different PP-based diets. Another growth trial compared a control diet containing fish oil (FO) as the main lipid source and different VO-based diets; after a period, all sole were fed with the FO diet. Results showed that the incorporation of PP sources up to 75% allowed the production of a similar content of major volatile compounds to the control diet. In VO-based diets, some significant differences were found in the levels of some volatile compounds in sole muscle; however, no significant differences were obtained through sensory evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

de Moura A.P.,University of Porto | Cunha L.M.,University of Porto | Castro-Cunha M.,ACC A. Coelho and Castro Lda | Lima R.C.,Sense Test Lda.
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore women's perceptions about the benefits and risks of fish consumption, while exploring differences on their views about wild and farmed fish, considering light fish consumers. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology adopted is exploratory, using focus group technique, segregating women by education level (higher education versus lower education). A focus group guide was designed, taking into account the following dimensions: attitudes towards fish consumption and perceptions towards farmed fish relative to wild fish, also considering risk perceptions related to farmed versus wild fish. Findings: This study has shown that fish consumers enjoy the taste of fish and they are strongly convinced that eating fish is healthy. The main reason for their low fish consumption is related to perceive lacking of convenience. Women with higher education levels expressed additional knowledge considering different aquaculture systems and women with lower education levels were convinced that both wild and farmed fish offer benefits and present disadvantages. Originality/value: The paper shows that attitudes of light fish users are partially similar to heavy fish users considering farmed fish production, with the search for convenience being driven by either perceived lack of time or perceived lack of cookery skills to prepare fish-based meals. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cabral E.M.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Cabral E.M.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | Bacelar M.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Bacelar M.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | And 6 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

A growth trial was conducted to evaluate the growth potential and nutrient utilization of Senegalese sole fed diets containing increasing replacement levels of dietary fishmeal (FM) by mixtures of plant protein (PP) sources. Six extruded isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (55% crude protein and 8% crude fat on a dry matter basis) were fed to juvenile sole (mean initial body weight: 8. g ± 0.06) during 92. days. A reference diet containing FM as the main protein source (Control) was compared with five PP based-diets with increasing PP levels: 25% (PP25), 35% (PP35), 45% (PP45), 60% (PP60) and 75% (PP75). PP45, PP60 and PP75 diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids to simulate the level present in the Control diet. The environmental impact of the tested diets was assessed through the determination of N and P budgets and calculating approximate Fish-in:Fish-out (Fi:Fo) ratios. Fish fed PP25 and PP75 reached a final body weight and daily growth index (DGI) similar to the Control group (P > 0.05). Diet PP45 displayed the lowest DGI (0.8 vs 1.3%), lowest protein efficiency ratio (1.03 vs 1.8) and highest FCR (1.7 vs 1.01). The dietary treatments with highest percentage of FM replacement (PP60 and PP75) displayed similar FCR values as the Control (1.2-1.0). Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein varied between 77 and 85% and were not significantly affected by the PP inclusion level. Whole body protein and energy content did not differ significantly among treatments, but protein gain was significantly higher in the Control group compared to PP35, PP45 and PP60 groups. The results indicate that Senegalese sole can effectively cope with plant protein-based diets, but growth rate and nutrient gain mainly depend on the selection of adequate plant protein blends, rather than on the plant protein incorporation level. Sole fed the highest PP level (PP75) showed good growth performance, efficient dietary nutrient utilization and a lower Fi:Fo ratio compared to the Control. The present results clearly show that increasing FM replacement level can have a positive environmental impact as reduces P fecal waste and the fishmeal used per kg of sole produced. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandes T.J.R.,University of Porto | Alves R.C.,University of Porto | Alves R.C.,Polytechnic Institute of Porto | Souza T.,University of Porto | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

A growth trial with Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles fed with diets containing increasing replacement levels of fishmeal by mixtures of plant protein sources was conducted over 12 weeks. Total fat contents of muscle, liver, viscera, skin, fins and head tissues were determined, as well as fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver (GC-FID analysis). Liver was the preferential local for fat deposition (5.5-10.8% of fat) followed by fins (3.4-6.7% fat). Increasing levels of plant protein in the diets seems to be related to increased levels of total lipids in the liver. Sole muscle is lean (2.4-4.0% fat), with total lipids being similar among treatments. Liver fatty acid profile varied significantly among treatments. Plant protein diets induced increased levels of C16:1 and C18:2 n-6 and a decrease in ARA and EPA levels. Muscle fatty acid profile also evidenced increasing levels of C18:2 n-6, while ARA and DHA remained similar among treatments. Substitution of fishmeal by plant protein is hence possible without major differences on the lipid content and fatty acid profile of the main edible portion of the fish - the muscle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Silva J.M.G.,University of Porto | Valente L.M.P.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | Castro-Cunha M.,ACC A. Coelho and Castro Lda | Bacelar M.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | Guedes De Pinho P.,University of Porto
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The present study evaluates the possible effects of dietary protein sources on Senegalese sole muscle volatile compounds. Senegalese sole juveniles (8 g mean IBW) were fed with six extruded diets containing different protein sources: a control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source and five plant protein-based diets, in which fishmeal was replaced by increasing levels of a blend of vegetable proteins: soybean, pea, potato, wheat and corn gluten at five graded levels. The volatile profiling of the raw fish fillets was evaluated using automated HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified and the most abundant in all samples were quantified. 1-Penten-3-ol, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and (E)-2-nonen-1-ol were present in the highest concentrations. Among the 20 compounds quantified, no major differences were observed in muscle volatile profile of fish fed with the different diets (p > 0.05). These findings indicated that fish meal substitution by plant proteins has no major effects on sole's muscle volatile composition. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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