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Chaturvedi R.K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Chaturvedi R.K.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Beal M.F.,Cornell University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases of the brain, characterized by behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. Ample evidence underpins mitochondrial dysfunction as a central causal factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we discuss the role of mitochondrial dysfunction such as bioenergetics defects, mitochondrial DNA mutations, gene mutations, altered mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial fusion/ fission, morphology, size, transport/trafficking, and movement), impaired transcription and the association of mutated proteins with mitochondria in these diseases. We highlight the therapeutic role of mitochondrial bioenergetic agents in toxin and in cellular and genetic animal models of neurodegen-erative disorders. We also discuss clinical trials of bioenergetics agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Lastly, we shed light on PGC-1α, TORC-1, AMP kinase, Nrf2-ARE, and Sirtuins as novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Anothumakkool B.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Soni R.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Bhange S.N.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Kurungot S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

A novel synthetic strategy has been developed for the preparation of a highly conducting polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) phase on flexible cellulose paper by inducing surfactant-free interfacial polymerization at the interface of two immiscible liquids. The process is highly scalable in that very large flexible PEDOT papers can be prepared in 2-3 h under laboratory conditions. The PEDOT paper possesses efficiently packed π-conjugated chains and offers the possibility of increased doping levels, confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Vis measurement. This useful development was achieved by slow polymerization, coupled with the high dielectric constant of the interface, which stabilised the counter-ions by hydrogen bonding. This gave improved intra-chain charge mobility, leading to conductivity as high as 375 S cm-1, much higher than for PEDOT prepared in n-butanol, typically 30 S cm-1. A low sheet resistance of 3 Ω □-1 was achieved by multiple coating, and this was found to be stable even after two months in ambient conditions and under a variety of flexible and bending conditions. A flexible solid-state supercapacitor with overall thickness 0.17 mm made from the PEDOT paper and PVA-H2SO4 as the solid electrolyte exhibited a volumetric energy density of 1 mW h cm-3. The specific capacitance measured per unit mass of PEDOT in the system was 115 F g-1, together with a high volumetric capacitance of 145 F cm-3. These observed values were significantly higher than those for bulk PEDOT tested on solid current collectors, and also than the highest values quoted in the literature. The flexible devices were found to be very stable during charge-discharge cycling under twisted and bending conditions over more than 3800 cycles. A 3.6 V inter-digitized flexible device was also made using a single PEDOT paper, and was found to be sufficiently powerful to cause an LED to glow under flexible conditions. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Misra M.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Kapur P.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Singla M.L.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2014

In this research work, we have demonstrated the synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell nanostructure by a simple two-step chemical method. The ZnO coating enhance the charge separation process, whereas higher shell thickness suppresses the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of Au core and quenches the near band edge emission of ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of Au@ZnO nanostructure is evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye and oxidation of methanol under visible irradiation. Compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit efficient plasmonic photocatalytic activity because of the presence of SPR in the Au core. The photocatalytic activity of the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs is enhanced by the shell thickness. Moreover, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of Au@ZnO under visible light irradiation is also proposed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Azhagan M.V.K.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Vaishampayan M.V.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shelke M.V.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shelke M.V.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Electrode materials with efficient capabilities for ionic and electronic transport are key to high performance supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate a simple and comparatively low temperature synthesis of functionalized multilayer fullerenes so called carbon nano-onions (CNOs) as the electrode for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. The exohedral type supercapacitor formed due to nonporous CNOs showed higher specific capacitance than conventional graphitic/mesoporous/activated carbons. Surface redox functionalities of these CNOs add up to significant pseudocapacitance. Further in situ incorporation of MnO2 nanoparticles to these CNOs increased the specific capacitance up to 1207 F g-1, which is close to the theoretical value of pseudocapacitive MnO2. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Pasupuleti S.B.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Sarkar O.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Venkata Mohan S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

The present account focuses on upscaling of biohydrogen (H2) production at semi-pilot scale bioreactor using composite food waste. Experiments were conducted at different organic load (6, 12, 18, 30, 40, 50 and 66 g COD/l) conditions. H2 production increased with an increasing organic load up to 50 g COD/l (9.67 l/h) followed by 40 g COD/l (6.48 l/h), 30 g COD/l (1.97 l/h), 18 g COD/l (0.90 l/h), 12 g COD/l (0.78 l/h) and 6 g COD/l (0.32 l/h). H2 production was affected by acidification (pH drop to 3.96) at 66 g COD/l operation due to the excess accumulation of soluble metabolites (5696 mg VFA/l). Variation in organic load of food waste influenced the overall hydrogen production efficiency. © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Deshmukh A.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shelke M.V.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shelke M.V.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

A new Fe3O4-SWCNH nanocomposite was synthesized as an electrode material for supercapacitors. The nanocomposite exhibited a high specific capacitance of 377 F g-1 and delivered a stable discharge capacitance at a current density of 1 A g-1 over 1000 cycles between 0 and 1.2 V. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Dhavale V.M.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Dhavale V.M.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Kurungot S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Kurungot S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2015

Cu-Pt nanocage (CuPt-NC) intermetallic structures have been prepared by an in situ galvanic displacement reaction. The structures are found to be well organized within the framework demarcated with distinguishing arms, having clear edges and corners with a size of 20 nm. The unique nanocage structure possessing large specific surface area and better structural integrity helps to achieve improved electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction activity and stability in alkaline solution in comparison to the commercially available 20 wt % Pt/C. CuPt-NC shows 50 mV positive onset potential shift with significantly higher limiting current in comparison to Pt/C. Interestingly, CuPt-NC has shown 2.9- and 2.5-fold improved mass activity and specific activity, respectively, for ORR at 0.9 V vs RHE in comparison to Pt/C. Moreover, the stability of CuPt-NC has been tested by an accelerated durability test under alkaline conditions. CuPt-NC has been subsequently utilized as the air electrode in a primary Zn-air battery and is found to possess 1.30- and 1.34-fold improved power density and current density at 1 V, respectively, in comparison to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. In addition, CuPt-NC has shown several hours of constant discharge stability at 20 mA cm-2 with a specific capacity of 560 mAh gZn -1 and energy density of 728 Wh kgZn -1 in the primary Zn-air battery system. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Kumaraswamy G.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumaraswamy G.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Raju R.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2014

Aerobic dehydrogenative sulfenylation of H-phosphonites, and phosphine oxides with aryl/alkylsulfonyl hydrazides catalyzed by a sub-stoichiometric amount of copper iodide has been accomplished. This protocol is compatible with functional groups, and results in various thiophosphate derivatives in good to high yields. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chakraborty D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Choudhury D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Choudhury D.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2014

The stability analysis has been carried out for generalized non-vertical waterfront retaining wall supporting inclined backfill under combined action of earthquake and tsunami forces. Closed-form design solutions for factor of safety against sliding have been obtained using limit equilibrium method. For estimating seismic passive earth pressure and the wall inertia force, the pseudo-dynamic approach has been adopted. Different methods available in literature are used to estimate tsunami wave pressure and hydrodynamic pressure. It has been observed that parameters like seismic accelerations in both horizontal and vertical directions, time period, soil and wall friction angles, wall batter, ground inclination, pore pressure ratio, tsunami wave height have significant effect on the sliding stability of the waterfront retaining wall under combined action of earthquake and tsunami. Comparison of results with available results in literature for special case of vertical waterfront retaining wall supporting horizontal backfill has indicated a very good agreement. It is expected that the proposed design charts and tables presented in this paper will be helpful for the design engineers to design waterfront retaining wall against sliding mode of failure under combined action of earthquake and tsunami. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nepak D.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Darbha S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2014

The catalytic application of Au-Pd nanoparticles supported on sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTNTs) for liquid-phase aerobic oxidation of alcohols is reported, for the first time. This reaction occurs at 80-120 °C, 1 atm and solvent-/alkali-free conditions yielding the corresponding carbonyls in high selectivity. This catalyst was reusable and found to be more active/selective than the corresponding monometallic Au and Pd catalysts and Au-Pd/TiO2. Higher dispersion, smaller particle size and higher amount of electron density at gold are the causes for the superior activity of Au-Pd/NaTNT catalyst. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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