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Singh P.S.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Singh P.S.,Academy of Scientific | Chaudhri S.G.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Kansara A.M.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Materials Science | Year: 2015

A simple preparation of mesostructured cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-silica membrane is reported. It effectively desalinates seawater to pure water through pervaporation separation process. Themembrane thickness was of nanometer-length-scale obtained by deposition of CTAB-silica colloids on porous polysulfone support. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to characterize the membrane while the structure of the colloids in coating solution was probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The prepared membranes exhibited excellent salt rejection efficiency of 99.9% in desalination of synthetic seawater of 40,000 ppm NaCl by pervaporation at 25°C. The pure water flux was in the range of 1-2.6 kg m-2 h depending upon the membrane configuration and thickness. The flux could be greatly enhanced by operating the process at higher temperatures of 40-80°C but it was at the cost of decreased salt-rejection efficiency. The initial rejection efficiency and flux of the membrane was found to be restored upon cooling the membrane back to room temperature.

Chejara D.R.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Chejara D.R.,Academy of Scientific | Kondaveeti S.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Prasad K.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

Sodium alginate (Na-Alg) reacted with 1-naphthylamine in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) affording an amide derivative capable of forming soft hydrogel at a concentration of 4% w/v. The latter upon gentle stirring turned into a viscous sol, which assumed the original gel structure upon standing at room temperature in a reversible process. Such thixotropic materials have the potential to be used in biomedical applications and as sensors. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chudasama N.A.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Siddhanta A.K.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute | Siddhanta A.K.,Academy of Scientific
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2015

In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone (13C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dwivedi V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hari Babu M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kant R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sridhar Reddy M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sridhar Reddy M.,Academy of Scientific
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

A highly general palladium catalysed regioselective hydroalkynylation of ynamides for versatile enamide building blocks with an alkyne tether is achieved with an N-substitution dependent stereoselectivity switch under very mild reaction conditions. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hussain N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hussain N.,Academy of Scientific | Borah A.,Academy of Scientific | Borah A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

A new strategy for in situ synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets with controlled size and shape is reported. This strategy was designed as three processes in one pot, namely, (a) reduction of graphene oxide, (b) formation of Pd NPs on the rGO nanosheets and (c) simultaneous reduction of olefin. In this synthesis process, a hydrogen atmosphere was used to develop the Pd NPs-rGO nanocatalyst, which is reusable and easily separable. The influence of the size and morphology of the Pd-rGO-H2 catalyst on the catalytic activity in the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction was investigated by comparing with other catalysts, Pd-rGO-As and Pd-rGO-Gl, and they were synthesized by different reducing agents, ascorbic acid and glucose, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy (HRTEM, SEM), FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The Pd-rGO-H2 catalyst was found to possess excellent catalytic activity and recyclability in the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction under mild reaction conditions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2015.

Yadav M.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Yadav M.,Jammu University | Dara S.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Dara S.,Academy of Scientific | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2015

Herein, we report a MnIII-mediated regioselective method for the direct C-H phosphonation of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines by using dialkyl phosphites. 3-Phosphonated imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines are synthesized in good to excellent yields under the optimized reaction conditions. The present method is also applicable to the functionalization of related heteroarenes, and unlike previously reported methods, the present strategy works well with (NH)-heteroarenes. Regioselective synthesis of phosphonylated heteroarenes: A mild, direct, and regioselective C-H phosphonation of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and related heteroarenes has been developed. Unlike those previously reported, the present method also works with (NH)-heteroarenes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Pasupuleti S.B.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Pasupuleti S.B.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Pasupuleti S.B.,Academy of Scientific | Srikanth S.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

Three microbial fuel cells (MFC) with dual gas diffusion cathode design were operated individually in different operation modes, viz., batch (MFC-BM), semi-continuous (MFC-SCM) and continuous (MFC-CM), using dark fermentation effluent (DFE). MFC-BM depicted lower power density (PD, 1.31 ± 1.75 mW/m2) due to the electron losses and mass transfer limitations, while, MFC-SCM (19.06 ± 2.01 mW/m2) and MFC-CM (15.53 ± 2.51 mW/m2) depicted higher PD. Though MFC-SCM showed higher power output, the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) was higher during MFC-CM (9.85 ± 1.02%) operation over MFC-BM and MFC-SCM operations. Henceforth, the stacking approach was carried out in continuous mode operation using DFE which showed a very good power output along with treatment efficiency. Stack mode operation was carried out at decreasing external loads to increase the overall power output as well as the electron delivering ability of the biocatalyst. Stack MFC depicted its maximum PD (3163 mW/m3; 19.79 mW/m2), across 2 kω of external resistance (Rex) along with the treatment efficiency of 80 ± 2%. Further decrement in Rex to 1 kω has resulted in lower and unstable PD, due to the inability of the biocatalyst to meet the electron requirement by the circuit. A detailed understanding of the stack MFC was made in terms of electrogenesis, electron discharge, coulombic and energy conversion efficiencies as well as the bioprocess parameters. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

Sayem Alam M.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sayem Alam M.,Academy of Scientific | Mandal A.B.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2015

In this investigation, we have studied the micellization of non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114 (by surface tension measurement) and cationic gemini surfactant, pentanediyl-1,5-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) (16-5-16) by surface tension, conductivity and dye solubilization methods and the clouding phenomena of mixed surfactant (non-ionic Triton X-114 + cationic gemini 16-5-16) system in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Triton X-114 and 16-5-16 were measured and their surface properties and thermodynamics were evaluated. In aqueous solution, non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114 undergoes phase separation or cloud point (CP). Herein, we also report the influence of additives (e.g., electrolytes, sugars, amino acids, etc.) on the CP of Triton X-114 in aqueous solutions. The CP showed a concentration dependent variation in the absence of any added compound (additives). With the addition of additives, the CP values were found to decrease and increase. It is found that the CP of pure Triton X-114 is concentration dependent; and the presence of gemini surfactant (16-5-16) increases the CP. However, all additives in the presence of the gemini surfactant (i.e., Triton X-114 + 16-5-16 system) decrease the CP. The results are discussed by taking into consideration the nature of the additives. The thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated at CP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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