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The Academy of science of the Czech Republic was established in 1992 by the Czech National Council as the Czech successor of the former Czechoslovak Academy of science. The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic. It conducts both fundamental and strategic applied research.It has three scientific divisions, namely the Division of Mathematics, Physics, and Earth science, Division of Chemical and Life science, and Division of Humanities and Social science. The Academy currently manages a network of sixty research institutes and five supporting units staffed by a total of 6,400 employees, over one half of whom are university-trained researchers and Ph.D. scientists.The Head Office of the Academy and forty research institutes are located in Prague, the remaining institutes being situated throughout the country. Wikipedia.


Stros M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2010

HMGB proteins are members of the High Mobility Group (HMG) superfamily, possessing a unique DNA-binding domain, the HMG-box, which can bind non-B-type DNA structures (bent, kinked and unwound) with high affinity, and also distort DNA by bending/looping and unwinding. HMGBs (there are four HMGBs in mammals, HMGB1-4) are highly abundant and ubiquitously expressed non-histone proteins, acting as DNA chaperones influencing multiple processes in chromatin such as transcription, replication, recombination, DNA repair and genomic stability. Although HMGB1 is a nuclear protein, it can be secreted into the extracellular milieu as a signaling molecule when cells are under stress, in particular, when necrosis occurs. Mammalian HMGBs contain two HMG-boxes arranged in tandem, share more than 80% identity and differ in the length (HMGB1-3) or absence (HMGB4) of the acidic C-tails. The acidic tails consist of consecutive runs of only Glu/Asp residues of various length, and modulate the DNA-binding properties and functioning of HMGBs. HMGBs are subject to post-translational modifications which can fine-tune interactions of the proteins with DNA/chromatin and determine their relocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and secretion. Association of HMGBs with chromatin is highly dynamic, and the proteins affect the chromatin fiber as architectural factors by transient interactions with nucleosomes, displacement of histone H1, and facilitation of nucleosome remodeling and accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA to transcription factors or other sequence-specific proteins. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Palus M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Interactions between dynamics on different temporal scales of about a century long record of data of the daily mean surface air temperature from various European locations have been detected using a form of the conditional mutual information, statistically tested using the Fourier-transform and multifractal surrogate data methods. An information transfer from larger to smaller time scales has been observed as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with the periods around 6-11 yr on the amplitudes of the variability characterized by the smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 yr. The overall effect of the slow oscillations on the interannual temperature variability within the range 1-2 C has been observed in large areas of Europe. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Dholakia K.,University of St. Andrews | Zemanek P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

The light-matter interaction has been at the heart of major advances from the atomic scale right to the microscopic scale over the past four decades. Confinement by light, embodied by the area of optical trapping, has had a major influence across all of the natural sciences. However, an emergent and powerful topic within this field that has steadily merged but not gained much recognition is optical binding: the importance of exploring the optically mediated interaction between assembled objects that can cause attractive and repulsive forces and dramatically influence the way they assemble and organize themselves. This offers routes for colloidal self-assembly, crystallization, and organization of templates for biological and colloidal sciences. In this Colloquium, this emergent area is reviewed looking at the pioneering experiments in the field and the various theoretical approaches that aim to describe this behavior. The latest experimental studies in the field are reviewed and theoretical approaches are now beginning to converge to describe the binding behavior seen. Recent links between optical binding and nonlinearity are explored as well as future themes and challenges. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Kupcova Skalnikova H.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Biochimie | Year: 2013

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with a substantial potential in human regenerative medicine due to their ability to migrate to sites of injury, capability to suppress immune response and accessibility in large amount from patient's own bone marrow or fat tissue. It has been increasingly observed that the transplanted MSCs did not necessarily engraft and differentiate at the site of injury but might exert their therapeutic effects through secreted trophic signals. The MSCs secrete a variety of autocrine/paracrine factors, called secretome, that support regenerative processes in the damaged tissue, induce angiogenesis, protect cells from apoptotic cell death and modulate immune system. The cell culture medium conditioned by MSCs or osteogenic, chondrogenic as well as adipogenic precursors derived from MSCs has become a subject of intensive proteomic profiling in the search for and identification of released factors and microvesicles that might be applicable in regenerative medicine. Jointly with the methods for MSC isolation, expansion and differentiation, proteomic analysis of MSC secretome was enabled recently mainly due to the extensive development in protein separation techniques, mass spectrometry, immunological methods and bioinformatics. This review describes proteomic techniques currently applied or prospectively applicable in MSC secretomics, with a particular focus on preparation of the secretome sample, protein/peptide separation, mass spectrometry and protein quantification techniques, analysis of posttranslational modifications, immunological techniques, isolation and characterisation of secreted vesicles and exosomes, analysis of cytokine-encoding mRNAs and bioinformatics. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Kleparnik K.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Electrophoresis | Year: 2013

This overview deals with the latest development of electrophoresis in capillaries and microfluidic devices coupled to MS detection. A wide selection of relevant articles covers the literature published from January 2010 till June 2012 as a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Pantuckova et al. [Electrophoresis 2011, 32, 43-51]. Special attention is paid to the new improvements in instrumentation and methodology of three interfacing methods, ESI, matrix-assisted desorption/ionization, and ICP. Representative examples illustrate applications in the proteomics, glycomics, metabolomics, biomarker research, forensics, pharmacology, food analysis and single-cell analysis. The combinations of MS with capillary versions of electrochromatography, ITP, IEF, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are not included. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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