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Shuyskaya E.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Rakhmankulova Z.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Voronin P.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Kuznetsova N.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

The morphological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of two Bassia sedoides (Chenopodiaceae) populations in the Southern Urals were studied. The plants of the Makan and Podolsk populations differ in growth (approximately 10-fold), in water and potassium contents and Na+/K+ ratio. On the basis of the genetic assay (by isozymes, RAPD and ISSR markers) of B. sedoides from the Makan and Podolsk populations, the intraspecific differences have been identified. The more productive Makan population showed greater genetic polymorphism, whereas the less productive Podolsk population showed less genetic polymorphism. The seedlings of B. sedoides from the Makan and Podolsk populations were cultivated under low and moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively) and equivalent osmoticity generated by the two PEG concentrations. Both populations were sensitive to dehydration initiated by PEG. Podolsk seedlings were more sensitive to osmotic stress and were characterised by an increase in proline content. Low salinity (100 mM NaCl) was necessary for optimal growth of seedlings from the Makan population. They showed significantly increased fresh biomass and number of lateral shoots. The maximal growth of seedlings from Podolsk was under 0–100 mM NaCl, and their biomass was approximately 1.4-fold lower than that of the Makan seedlings. Under moderate salinity (200 mM NaCl), the Makan seedlings were more salt tolerant than the Podolsk seedlings because of maintaining a low Na+/K+ ratio. Under natural conditions, the excess of Na+/K+ ratio compared with values for optimal growth under laboratory conditions was approximately threefold for the Makan plants and approximately fivefold for the Podolsk plants. High values of the Na+/K+ ratio under natural conditions indicate a deficit of potassium in the soil. Perhaps, the degree of potassium deficiency is one of the factors influencing the differences in productivity and the level of genetic variation of B. sedoides under natural conditions. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Rakhmankulova Z.F.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Shuyskaya E.V.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Suyundukov Y.T.,Academy of science of the Republic Bashkortostan | Usmanov I.Y.,Bashkir State University | Voronin P.Y.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

The effects of low and moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively) and iso-osmotic stress generated by polyethylene glycol PEG (1) (–0.3 MPa) and PEG (2) (–0.6 MPa) on maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), growth, photosynthesis, transpiration, dark respiration, water use efficiency (WUE), water content, chlorophyll, proline, Na+ and K+ concentrations were investigated in shoots of two ecotypes С3–С4 xero-halophyte Bassia sedoides (Pall.) Aschers. Plants were grown from seeds of two Southern Urals populations (Makan and Podolsk) differing in their bioproductivity. Aboveground biomass of the Makan plants was approximately 10-fold higher than that of the Podolsk ecotype. The plants of both ecotypes were sensitive to water deficit. They showed similar decrease in biomass, water content, net photosynthesis and transpiration intensity under both low and moderate osmotic stress (PEG). However, the content of сhlorophyll and free proline in shoots of the Podolsk plants increased under moderate osmotic stress (PEG(2)). Under salinity the differences between transpiration, Fv/Fm, WUE, water content, chlorophyll and proline concentrations in shoots of two ecotypes were no found. But, the Podolsk plants showed decrease in the growth parameters (1.5-fold), increase in the dark respiration intensity (2-fold) and the Na+/K+ ratio (1.2-fold) under moderate salinity (200 mM NaCl). Thus, the reduction of bioproductivity of the Podolsk ecotype under salinity was the result of ionic rather than osmotic factor of salinity. In the Podolsk plants the additional transpiration costs and consumption of assimilates (correspondingly) increased with the toxic sodium ion accumulation under salinity. This led to decrease in the growth parameters. Thus, two B. sedoides ecotypes have different adaptive strategies of tolerance to the ionic factor of salt stress at the level of the physiological processes associated with the dark CO2 gas exchange. Moreover, in less tolerant and productive Podolsk ecotype the increase in proline content in shoots characterized comparatively low adaptation to osmotic factor, and the increase in dark respiration and the Na+/K+ ratio pointed to relatively low resistance to ion factor of salinity as compared with the Makan ecotype. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Rakhmankulova Z.F.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Shuyskaya E.V.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Shcherbakov A.V.,Bashkir State University | Fedyaev V.V.,Bashkir State University | And 3 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Growth parameters, the content of proline and flavonoids. Na+ and K+ ion accumulation in the shoots of four species of halophytes from the family Chenopodiaceae inhabiting the territory of the South Urals at different levels of salinity were studied. Within a single taxonomic group, different strategies of salt tolerance related to the level of soil salinity and specific features of salt accumulation in the shoots were revealed. Differences were manifested in the contents of protective compounds (proline and flavonoids) in dependence on the Na+and K+ion accumulation in the plant shoots. To characterize the participation of these compounds in plant adaptation to salinity, the ratio proline/flavonoids (Pro/Fl) was introduced. The highest value of Pro/Fl (4.9) was observed in Artiplex tatarica L. growing at weak salinity; in this plant, salt accumulation in the shoots depended on the sodium content in soil. Species Bassia sedoides (Pall.) Aschers., Atriplex verrucifera M. Bieb, and Kochia prostrate (L.) Schrad., with salt accumulation in the shoots indepen dent on the level of soil salinity, inhabited the regions with the higher salinity. In these species the ratio Pro/Fl was 0.2–1.4, i.e., flavonoids, which concentration was positively correlated with the K+content, played a great and equal to proline role in protective mechanisms. In species B. sedoides and A. verrucifera, the high content of both flavonoids and K+ are indices correlating with high productivity and adaptation to the envi ronment. Proline can be used as a marker of stress only in A. verrucifera, the most salt tolerant among the studied halophytes. It is concluded that the Pro/Fl ratio in halophytes from the family Chenopodiaceae char acterizes the strategies of adaptation depending on salt accumulation in plants. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Panov A.A.,Academy of science of the Republic Bashkortostan | Anasova T.A.,Academy of science of the Republic Bashkortostan | Zaikov G.E.,RAS Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics | Panov A.K.,Academy of science of the Republic Bashkortostan
Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

The process of imposing ultrasound and its influence on the rheological properties of polymers, the high-elasticity properties of extrudates, the changes in the power of ultrasonic vibrations absorbed by a polymer in the course of extrusion, and also on the strength properties of extrudates are considered. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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