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Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Ariunchimeg Y.,Academy of science of Mongolia
Paleontological Journal

The taxonomic diversity and distribution of the Upper Ordovician bryozoans of Mongolia are analyzed. Five heterochronous assemblages of bryozoans are established: Chigertei and Tsagaan del in the Sandbian Stage and Bairim Ovoo, Uuregnur, and Sairin in the Katian Stage. The bryozoans are shown to be important for solving complex problems of stratigraphy of the Ordovician of Mongolia and for paleogeographic reconstructions. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Source

Semerikov V.L.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Semerikova S.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Dymshakova O.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zatsepina K.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics

The variability of four microsatellite loci of chloroplast DNA was studied in 38 populations of Pinus sylvestris in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, Kazakhstan, Transbaikalia and Mongolia. High variability was observed in all regions. In total, 152 haplotypes were identified. The level of population differentiation R ST was 2.1%. The differentiation of three geographical groups of populations (European, Siberian-Kazakhstan and Transbaikalian-Mongolian) was insignificant (R CT = 0.004). At the same time, some rare haplotypes were found to be specific for a certain geographical region. Distribution of the rare haplotypes, which differentiated European populations from Asian populations and Mongolian and Transbaikalian populations from the Siberian, showed the independence of the history of these regions. This corresponds more to the hypothesis that the modern area of Pinus sylvestris originated via settlement from many origins than to the hypothesized single center of the post-glacial recolonization. The distribution of the pairwise differences between the individual specimens corresponded to the model of sudden population growth. The assessments of the age of this event for Pinus sylvestris (4.5-4.7 million years), which were obtained on the basis of this model, significantly exceeded the age of the Quaternary. Therefore, the revealed population growth is hardly due to the changes in flora related with the glaciation, but rather mirrors the moment of the species formation. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Kozakov I.K.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kirnozova T.I.,RAS Institute of Chemistry | Kovach V.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Terent'eva L.B.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation

The Dzabkhan microcontinent was earlier considered as a fragment of an ancient craton in the structure of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Deposits of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation were included in the shelf zone, under the assumption that they were related to the regional unconformity between the Early-Late Precambrian crystal formations. The carbonate sequence of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation overlaps crystalline rocks only in the eastern part of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, where dolomites lie unconformably on high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by granitoids of the Bogdyngol massif. The latter were included in the composition of both the Early Precambrian basement and the Middle Riphean intrusive complex. We have determined the U-Pb zircon age of these granitoids at 717 ± 5 Ma and the Nd model ages of granitoids and gneisses of the basement of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation at 2.0–1.9 Ga at εNd = −10.0..−6.6. Recent geochronological and Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic and geochemical data indicate that intrusive and high-grade metamorphic complexes are absent in the crystalline basement of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, similar to those in ancient cratons. One can assume that the Late Riphean carbonate cover (Tsagaan Oloom Formation) deposited on the Late Precambrian continental block. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Bazha S.N.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Gunin P.D.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Danzhalova E.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Drobyshev Y.I.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions

The studies of the steppe ecosystems in Central Mongolia have showed that the simplification of steppe communities has taken place over recent decades. This occurred by reduction of species diversity and abundance of indigenous dominants—tussock grasses—as a result of sharp rise in pasture loads and a long dry period. We have identified two types of introduction of invasive species from different landscapes: (a) extraand intrazonal and (b) zonal. The first type of succession is characterized by focal distribution of Ephedra sinica from ecosystems of low mountains to the surrounding mountain plains. The second type of succession in dry steppes is associated with the expansion of Allium polyrrhizum, whose distribution has largely a frontal character and is caused by weakening of the competitiveness of indigenous species of grass communities because of their significant digression. A further factor in ensuring the conditions for invasion is the aeolian alkalization of the upper horizons of zonal chestnut soils. The ecological and biological features of these two species, widespread in the desert-steppe and desert landscapes and penetrating into the steppe ecosystems, make it possible to speak about biological desertification. The wide area of Ephedra sinica and Allium polyrrhizum indicates a progressive character of the studied types of succession, and as a result of this, the borders of these areas have reached at present the southern periphery of the Baikal Lake basin. The paper describes the processes which lead to the reduction of the fodder value of pastures and jeopardize the maintenance of cattle breeding in Central Mongolia. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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