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MacIaszek J.,Academy of Physical Education in Poznan
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to find factors which differentiate generally healthy elderly men who had fallen versus those whom had not fallen throughout the year prior to the study. The participants (66 generally healthy men aged over 70 years) were divided into two groups - those who had fallen (F) and those who had not fallen (NF) in the period of one year before the study. Their body mass index and fat mass were measured. On the basis of the value of maximum sways on a stable posturographic platform, the sway area was calculated. To study psychomotor fitness reaction time, an analysis was measured by the "Vienna System Test". Functional fitness was measured on the basis of selected tests from "The Senior Fitness Test". The complexity of the multiple mechanisms underlying postural control does not allow for clear indication of the risks of stability loss. The experimental group of men over 70 yrs who had fallen (F) was characterised by lower body strength (p<0.05) and endurance (p<0.05), compared to NF group. Exercise programs designed to prevent accidental falls should incorporate strength and aerobic exercises.

Danilowicz-Szymanowicz L.,Medical University of Gdansk | Figura-Chmielewska M.,Medical University of Gdansk | Ratkowski W.,Academy of Physical Education in Poznan | Raczak G.,Medical University of Gdansk
Kardiologia Polska | Year: 2013

Background: A shift in the dynamic autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance towards sympathetic activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) predisposes them to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Improvement of unfavourable changes in ANS can be expected in such patients as a result of physical training. A beneficial shift in ANS balance towards parasympathetic activity could be confirmed by demonstrating increased baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) as well as favourable changes in heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Aim: To analyse the effect of different forms of physical training on ANS activity in patients with AMI after hospital discharge. Methods: The study included 38 patients with AMI (aged 59 ± 8 years) subjected to 2-month exercise training. Group 1 (n = 19) underwent 3-week supervised in-hospital cardiac rehabilitation followed by 5-week home-based training, and Group 2 (n = 19) underwent 8-week home-based training. BRS and HRV were determined based on a 10-min recording of systolic arterial pressure and the cardiac cycle. Measurements were performed one day before discharge (R1) and after 2 months of training (R2). Results: A significant increase in the mean values of TP (total power), HF (high frequency power), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squared differences between successive R-R intervals), and pNN50 (proportion of differences between successive R-R intervals that are greater than 50 ms) was observed in the overall study group, along with trends for higher SDNN (standard deviation of the mean of sinus rhythm R-R intervals) and HFnu (normalised HF power), and for lower LFnu (normalised LF power). Additionally, a significant increase in BRS (from 2.2 ± 0.6 to 5.1 ± 2.2 ms/mm Hg, p = 0.01) was found in patients with baseline BRS 3 ms/mm Hg. A significant increase in rMSSD, pNN50, HF and HFnu, as well as a decrease in LFnu and LF/HF (LF to HF ratio) was observed in Group 1. In contrast, a significant increase in BRS was noted in Group 2. Conclusions: Various forms of 2-month physical training led to a favourable shift in autonomic balance towards parasympathetic activity. Our findings suggest a clinically important effect of physical activity in patients after AMI. © Polskie Towarzystwo Kardiologiczne.

Baczyk M.,Academy of Physical Education in Poznan | Jankowska E.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

The main aim of the present study was to examine to what extent long-lasting subcortical actions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be related to its presynaptic actions. This was investigated in the red nucleus, where tDCS was recently demonstrated to facilitate transmission between interpositorubral and rubrospinal neurons. Changes in the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons close to rubrospinal neurons were investigated during and after tDCS (0.2 mA) applied over the sensorimotor cortical area in deeply anaesthetized rats and cats. As a measure of the excitability, we used the probability of antidromic activation of individual interpositorubral neurons by electrical stimuli applied in the red nucleus. Our second aim was to compare effects of weak (≤1 μA) direct current applied within the red nucleus with effects of tDCS to allow the use of local depolarization in a further analysis of mechanisms of tDCS instead of widespread and more difficult to control depolarization evoked by distant electrodes. Local cathodal polarization was found to replicate all effects of cathodal tDCS hitherto demonstrated in the rat, including long-lasting facilitation of trans-synaptically evoked descending volleys and trisynaptically evoked EMG responses in neck muscles. It also replicated all effects of anodal tDCS in the cat. In both species, it increased the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons up to 1 h post-tDCS. Local anodal polarization evoked opposite effects. We thus show that presynaptic actions of polarizing direct current may contribute to both immediate and prolonged effects of tDCS. © 2014 The Physiological Society.

The study defines the idea behind the research project which analyzes the swing-through gait from the biomechanical and kinesiological perspective. In the preliminary phase, the authors performed a synthetic analysis of the state of knowledge, created a description of the general kinematic structure of the swing-through gait as a form of locomotion with the use of crutches, proposed definitions. The problem was described with the use of time characteristics of vertical and horizontal anterior-posterior as well as lateral components of ground reaction forces, measured from under the supporting limb and the crutches. Presenting the idea behind the research project, the authors defined in detail the purpose of the study, the assumptions, research methodology--including a description of methods used and the measurement channels which consisted of: 2 AMTI force platforms integrated into a measurement walkway, a set of 6 optoelectronic cameras of the BTS System as well as a multichannel kinesiologic electromyography performed with the use of the NORAXON System. All phases of the research were characterized, presenting the research protocol in its entirety. The research will be conducted in the Laboratory of the Department of Biomechanics of USPS in Poznan, which possesses the ISO 9001:2008 quality management system certificate.

Ziemann E.,University of Gdansk | Olek R.A.,University of Gdansk | Kujach S.,University of Gdansk | Grzywacz T.,University of Gdansk | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Athletic Training | Year: 2012

Context: Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. Objective: To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s): Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day wholebody cryostimulation (-120°C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor a, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Results: Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor a) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Conclusions: Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying wholebody cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor a and an increase in interleukin 6. © by the National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc. 2012.

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