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Prem Kumar N.,Academy of Medical science | Vijayan S.K.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Dharsana J.N.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Anjana A.K.,Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy College
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine comparing the effect of antidiabetic activity of andrographis paniculata, salacia reticulata and Ocimum sanctum by invitro screening. Study design: Cells were cultured on 6 well plates and incubated for 48 hrs at 37°C in CO2 incubator. When semi confluent monolayer was formed, the culture were renewed with serum free DMEM containing 0.2 % BSA and incubated for 18 hrs at 37°C in CO2 incubator. The cells are treated with Insulin, Standard drug and plant extract and added glucose (1M) and incubated for half an hour. The supernatant was collected for glucose estimation and glucose uptake was terminated by washing the cells three times with 1 ml ice-cold KRP buffer. Cells were subsequently lysed by freezing and thawing three times. Glucose uptake was calculated as the difference between the initial and final glucose content in the incubated medium by GOD-POD method. Results: In vitro study on glucose utilization in L-6 cells showed that the effects of both the extract were found to be mild over control. Andrographis paniculata enhanced the glucose uptake by 16.11 ± 2.76% over control salacia reticulata stimulated the uptake of glucose only by 12.44 ± 2.35% over control Ocimum sanctum enhanced the glucose uptake by 11.75 ± 2.06 over control. Conclusion The drugs discussed in these studies have exhibited hypoglycemic activity and stimulates glucose uptake in L-6 skeletal muscle cells.Antidiabetic activity of Andrographis paniculata was found to be prominent over salacia reticulate, which has shown better activity than Ocimum sanctum. This study can bring a promising role for these plants in the management of Diabetes mellitus.

Dharsana J.N.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Vijayan S.K.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the anti-diabetic activity of Anaphyllum wightii in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis, resulting in severe diabetic complications. Herbal preparations of tubers of Anaphyllum wightii had been considered as effective, economical and safe treatments for curing various diseases in Indian traditional system of medicine including diabetes. Therefore, the present study to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Anaphyllum wightii in alloxan induced diabetes in albino wistar rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120mg/kg, b.wt) to induce diabetes. Administration of ethanolic extracts from tubers of Anaphyllum wightii (100, 150&200mg/kg body weight/day) for 10 days, to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. The results suggest that the administration of Anaphyllum wightii have an anti-diabetic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats and their effect was equivalent to that of reference drug Glibenclamide.

Dharsana J.N.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical and anti-inflammatory activities of various extracts of Morinda umbellata. Morinda umbellata (Family-Rubiaceae) commonly known as Ney-Valli in Malayalam, found in Southern Western Ghats. The present study aimed at preliminary evaluation of phytochemical and anti- inflammatory study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Morinda umbellata by in vitro HRBC membrane stabilizing activity. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Morinda umbellata were found to have significant anti-inflammatory activity. The ethanol and aqueous extract of Morinda umbellata showed potent anti-inflammatory activity when comparing with the standard drug Indomethacin, perhaps due to the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins.

Vijayan S.K.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Mohammed M.,Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy college
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 & 2 are most infectious pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. After establishing latency, HSV can reactivate, causing frequent recurrent infections in some patients, while most people experience few recurrences. The increase in viral infections and the prevalent resistance of virions to chemotherapeutic agents urges us to search for an efficient and novel antiviral strategy. Traditionally leaf paste of Psidium gujava L. was used to treat acne, ulcers, cholera, nephritis etc. Psidium gujava L. has been reported for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials. Methods: Plant leaves collected in and around Malappuram District of Kerala, India, were extracted by continuous extraction and cold maceration techniques. The selection of extracts made according to the data obtained from phytochemical screening. Cytotoxicity assays such as MTT and SRB were performed to find out the cytotoxic tolerance limits for dose calculation. The plant extracts were screened for its antiviral property by CPE inhibition assay against various virus challenge doses such as 2TCID50 and 10TCID50. Results: Pet. ether extract showed significant activity in lower doses such as 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml (2TCID50) and 100 μg/ml (10TCID50). The hydro alcoholic (Soxhlet extraction & maceration) extracts also showed partial activity. Conclusion: All the extracts were showing its potential to inhibit both HSV-1 and HSV-2 proliferation in Vero cells. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of this plant which may be useful in the development of new and effective antiviral agents.

Siju E.N.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Samu J.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science | Minil M.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Myxopyrum smilacifolium Blume. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, nitric oxide radical and superoxide scavenging activity, using different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml). Results: The extracts showed significant activity as compared to control; but comparatively less than the ascorbic acid. Conclusion: The extracts of myxopyrum smilacifolium blume showed antioxidant activities. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.

Shirwaikar A.,Gulf Medical University | Devi S.,Pariyaram Medical College | Rajagopal P.L.,Academy of Pharmaceutical Science | Kiron S.S.,Academy of Pharmaceutical Science | Sreejith K.R.,Academy of Pharmaceutical Science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

Objective: To develop and validate a simple, precise and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the assay of Donepezil HCl in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. Method: It is based on the formation of ion-pair complex between the drug and Bromo cresol purple in phthalate buffer solution. The formed complex was extracted with chloroform and measured at 410 nm. Results: Beer's law was obeyed in the range 2-14 μg/ ml with correlation coefficient (n = 6) ≥ 0.9999.The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The composition of the ion pairs was found 1:1 by Job's method. Conclusion: This developed method was validated for accuracy and precision and has been applied successfully for the analysis of Donepezil in pure and in its dosage forms.

Arunshirwaikar A.,Gulf Medical University | Premkumar N.,Pariyaram Medical College | Sarala A.,Pariyaram Medical College | Bhaskaran K.,Pariyaram Medical College | Rajagopal P.L.,Academy of Pharmaceutical science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine drug utilization and evaluation of adjuvant therapy in mild to severe asthma patient and whether adjuvant therapy like montelukast, an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist and theophyline, provides additional clinical benefit with prescribed asthma therapy. Study design: The present study was an open labeled study conducted for a period of two years with mild to severe asthma patients in a tertiary care hospital and Private clinics in North Malabar region of Kerala. A total of 64 patients with mild to severe asthma were included in this study. Results: In these 64 patients, 12.5% received adjuvant therapy; in these 9.5% received montelukast.LTa added baseline PFT (1.59± 0.66) and 90th day follow-up PFT (2.66±0.67) showed improvement (1.07unit) and QoL improvement (27.46unit). LTa included asthma therapy had showed -0.62 units clinical improvement in pulmonary function test and -7.49 units quality of life, when compared to other adjuvant therapy like theophyline. Conclusion: all treatments were well tolerated, adjuvant therapy in bronchial asthma patients was found to be minimal in this area, including montelukast add on asthma therapy, patients showed additional improvement in quality of life comparing with theophyline.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 656.60K | Year: 2014

This project is a collaboration between large UK pharmaceutical companies, academia and technology suppliers to generate a structured approach to designing age-appropriate medicines for children and technology for predicting their quality and performance. Paediatric medicine is currently a hot-topic within the pharmaceutical industry and there is a lot of effort going into developing such medicines for children that are acceptable in terms of taste but also provide the relevant dose and exposure required for such patients. The output will provide a smarter route to developing children’s medicines to reduce costs and time of development by determination of the most appropriate testing strategies that drive formulation design.

Jose S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Fangueiro J.F.,Fernando Pessoa University | Smitha J.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Cinu T.A.,Mahatma Gandhi University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Insulin-loaded microspheres composed of chitosan 3% (w/v), and loading 120 IU insulin were produced by emulsion cross-linking method. Cross-linking time was 5 h and glutaraldehyde 3.5% (v/v) was used as cross-linker. Swelling ratio studies were evaluated to predict release of insulin from chitosan microspheres. Bacitracin and sodium taurocholate were incorporated in the formulations as proteolytic enzyme inhibitor and absorption enhancer, respectively. In vitro insulin release studies were performed in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and also in HCl pH 2 with and without trypsin. Activity of bacitracin was also evaluated. In vitro release showed a controlled profile up to 12 h and the formulation containing 0.15% (w/v) of bacitracin revealed a maximum biological activity of about 49.1 ± 4.1%. Mathematical modeling using Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas suggested a non-Fickian diffusion as the mechanism of insulin release. Insulin-loaded chitosan microspheres for oral delivery showed to be an innovative and reliable delivery system to overcome conventional insulin therapy.

Jose S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Fangueiro J.F.,Fernando Pessoa University | Smitha J.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Cinu T.A.,Mahatma Gandhi University | And 4 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2012

Insulin-loaded chitosan microspheres were engineered by emulsion cross-linking method using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Taguchi orthogonal method was applied to optimize the production time and reduce the number of experiments required to obtain an optimized formulation. Three variables were evaluated, i.e. chitosan and glutaraldehyde concentrations, and cross-linking time at three levels. The dependent variables were the mean particle size and the encapsulation efficiency. The optimal formulation was obtained with chitosan 3% (w/v), glutaraldehyde 3.5% (v/v), and cross-linking time of 5. h, characterized by microspheres with a mean particle size of 29.5 μm, and insulin encapsulation efficiency of 71.6 ± 1.3%. In vivo studies were carried out using male Wistar albino rats, revealing a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of the optimized formulation, in comparison to a subcutaneous insulin injection. Chitosan microspheres were superior in terms of sustaining protein release over conventional insulin therapy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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