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Zhang K.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang K.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Zhang Z.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control | And 22 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Replication and transmission of avian influenza virus (AIV) in domestic dogs and cats may pose a risk to humans. The susceptibility of cats and dogs to H9N2 influenza virus was evaluated by intranasally or orally inoculating animals with an H9N2 influenza virus. Cats had recoverable virus in respiratory tissues and the olfactory bulb three days post-inoculation and shed H9N2 virus into nasal washes and pharyngeal swabs from day 2 through day 10 post-inoculation. Virus was recovered from respiratory tissues of dogs three days post-inoculation, but was not detected in nasal washes or pharyngeal swabs. While no virus shedding or replication was detected in cats or dogs following consumption of H9N2-infected chicks, one of two cats and one of two dogs seroconverted. Two of three naïve contact cats seroconverted following co-housing with cats that were intranasally inoculated with H9N2 virus, whereas none of the three naïve contact dogs seroconverted. Our results demonstrate that H9N2 AIV can infect domestic cats and dogs via the upper respiratory tract and indicate that cats are more susceptible than dogs to H9N2 AIV. These findings suggest that domestic dogs and cats may serve as host species contributing to the adaptation of H9N2 viruses in mammals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liu L.,Jilin University | Liu L.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Liu L.,China Three Gorges University | Wu W.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

The efficacy and specificity of treatment are the major challenges for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive drug delivery platform of cancer gene therapy. Previous studies have determined that apoptin is a p53-independent, Bcl-2-insensitive apoptotic protein that has the ability to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. In this study, we show that the administration of a dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus construct, Ad-hTERT-E1a-apoptin [in which the adenovirus early region 1a (E1a) gene is driven by the cancer-specific promoter of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and that expresses apoptin simultaneously], suppresses tumor growth in gastric carcinoma cells in vitro and reduces the tumor burden in vivo in xenografted nude mice. The observation that infection with the Ad-hTERT-E1a-apoptin construct significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells and protected normal human gastric epithelium from growth inhibition confirmed the induction of cancer cell-selective adenovirus replication, growth inhibition and apoptosis by this therapeutic approach. In vivo assays were performed using BALB/c nude mice that had established primary tumors. Subcutaneous primary tumor volume was reduced not only in the intratumoral injection group but also in the systemic delivery mice following treatment with Ad-hTERT-E1a-apoptin. Furthermore, treatment of primary models with Ad-hTERT-E1a-apoptin increased the mouse survival time. These data reinforce previous research and highlight the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-apoptin for the treatment of neoplastic diseases in clinical trials.

He D.,Jilin University | He D.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Sun L.,The Tumor Hospital of Jilin Province | Li C.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | And 10 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2014

Oncolytic virotherapy has been an attractive drug platform for targeted therapy of cancer over the past few years. Viral vectors can be used to target and lyse cancer cells, but achieving good efficacy and specificity with this treatment approach is a major challenge. Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN), to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. In vitro, infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN could inhibit the growth of EC-109 cells significantly and also protect normal human liver cell line L02 from growth suppression in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN also effectively and selectively decreased the sialic acid level on EC-109 cells, but not on L02 cells. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN was shown to induce the apoptosis pathway via acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AO/EB staining), increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and release cytochrome c. In vivo, xenografted BALB/c nude mice were treated via intratumoral or intravenous injections of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN. Although both treatments showed an obvious suppression in tumor volume, only Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN delivered via intratumoral injection elicited a complete response to treatment. These results reinforced previous findings and highlighted the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN for treatment of esophageal cancer in clinical trials. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Deng X.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhang G.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhang L.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Feng Y.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Non-viral gene delivery system with many advantages has a great potential for the future of gene therapy. One inherent obstacle of such approach is the uptake by endocytosis into vesicular compartments. Receptor-mediated gene delivery method holds promise to overcome this obstacle. In this study, we developed a receptor-mediated gene delivery system based on a combination of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), which has a receptor binding and membrane translocation domain, and the hyperthermophilic archaeal histone (HPhA), which has the DNA binding ability. First, we constructed and expressed the RPE-HPhA fusion protein. We then examined the cytotoxicity and the DNA binding ability of RPE-HPhA. We further assessed the efficiency of transfection of the pEGF-C1 plasmid DNA to CHO cells by the RPE-HPhA system, in comparison to the cationic liposome method. The results showed that the transfection efficiency of RPE-HPhA was higher than that of cationic liposomes. In addition, the RPE-HPhA gene delivery system is non-specific to DNA sequence, topology or targeted cell type. Thus, the RPE-HPhA system can be used for delivering genes of interest into mammalian cells and has great potential to be applied for gene therapy. © 2015 Deng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zhao D.,Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine | Han X.,Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine | Han X.,Anhui Medical University | Zheng X.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | And 15 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2016

Fatal Ebola virus infection is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response similar to septic shock. Ebola glycoprotein (GP) is involved in this process through activating dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we showed that LSECtin (also known as CLEC4G) plays an important role in GP-mediated inflammatory responses in human DCs. Anti-LSECtin mAb engagement induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in DCs, whereas silencing of LSECtin abrogated this effect. Intriguingly, as a pathogen-derived ligand, Ebola GP could trigger TNF-α and IL-6 release by DCs through LSECtin. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LSECtin initiated signaling via association with a 12-kDa DNAX-activating protein (DAP12) and induced Syk activation. Mutation of key tyrosines in the DAP12 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif abrogated LSECtin-mediated signaling. Furthermore, Syk inhibitors significantly reduced the GP-triggered cytokine production in DCs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that LSECtin is required for the GP-induced inflammatory response, providing new insights into the EBOV-mediated inflammatory response. © 2016 Zhao et al.

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