Renn-Zurek A.,University of Lodz |
Renn-Zurek A.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski | Year: 2014
Futile medical care and euthanasia are hard to assess unequivocally and are becoming a frequent topic of social discussion. The problem requires both ethical and moral consideration as well as legal regulations. As a medical issue it has got both its supporters and opponents. The aim of the study was to evaluate of nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning euthanasia and persistend therapy. Material and methods. The survey group included 183 nurses aged 30-58. The diagnostic method poll was applied, the technique used was a questionnaire. Results. Among the nurses participating in the survey, 83% is against providing futile medical care when it is known that it will not bring any effect, while increasing the suffering and prolonging dying. 45% of the respondents consider euthanasia unacceptable, 41% think that euthanasia could be performed in cases in which patient's suffering cannot be relieved. 49% of the surveyed think that euthanasia should remain strictly prohibited by the Polish law, while 31% think that Polish legal system should legalize euthanasia. Conclusions. The nurses are aware that futile medical care for terminally ill and dying patients does not lead to successful treatment but instead it prolongs dying and suffering, at the same time resulting in extremely high financial costs. In most cases they are advocates of its discontinuing. The surveyed nurses differ in their approach towards euthanasia, some of them supporting the idea, the other-opposing it. Most of them express the opinion that euthanasia should be forbidden in the Polish law and their personal approach towards euthanasia is negative.
Kolacinski Z.,Technical University of Lodz |
Szymanski L.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz |
Raniszewski G.,Technical University of Lodz
Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies | Year: 2010
The paper presents own experience examples of plasma employing methods for gas and fluid waste destruction and solid waste conversion into valuable materials or products. Three of own design plasma reactors ROTARC, SPIRARC, PDUCR have been successfully used in the laboratory testing for gas and fluid chlorinated wastes and spent fluid chemical reagents destruction. A new approach to utilisation of mineral wastes using electric arc has been also presented. An immersed arc-plasma furnace IAF has been designed for this purpose. The conversion of toxic waste to the form of environmentally friendly and useful building materials is presented. © 2010 Science and Technology Network, Inc.
Denys A.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski | Year: 2011
It is 50 years since the first antiviral drug - JUDR for the local herpes keratitis was introduced and over 25 years since HIV/AIDS was isolated and the Noble Prize in Medicine and Physiology was given to its discoverers. Now, there are 50 antiviral drugs, in which 25 are for HIV, the others are for herpes virus, shingles, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis virus and influenza A virus. Drugs for hemorrhagic fever Ebola and Marbourg as well as Denga fever are under way. In the paper the current knowledge on chemotherapy and prophylaxis is presented in the following viral infections: HIV, HBV, HCV, CMV, HSV, shingles and other. The paper also demonstrates different groups of antiviral drugs, their use and efficacy. Mechanisms of infections and activity of antiviral drugs are analyzed.
Lopacieska I.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski | Year: 2012
The practice of documenting the credibility of quality management system of companies in the medical sector in Poland does not have a long history. In the recent years hospitals have started to work in a system similar to a competitive market with features specific for medical service preserved. As a result quality focused activity instruments were introduced to the medical service market, such as ISO family of standards. The aim of the work objective was to get to know the opinion of medical staff about the changes resulting in the quality management system implementation. Material and methods. The answers of a team of 200 medical staff from two Polish hospitals were analysed. The respondents were employed in medical institutions before and after the introduction of ISO 9001 Results. A large number of participants claimed that standardization in work organization made a significant improvement (45.50%, n = 91), but part of them (36.50%, n = 73) claimed that this new organization improved the situation not very much. And a small group (18,00%, n = 36) said that the organization did not change after the introduction of standardization. Nurses and medical rescue workers more often claimed (the result being statistically significant) that their work organization improved after the standardization implementation (48.54%), differently from doctors (27.59%, p = 0.008). Doctors in the research often claimed that the changes after the introduction of standardization caused an increase in the requirements of their professional qualifications (79.13%), but the nurses and medical rescue workers found it a bit less (74.85%). Most participants (87.50%, n = 175) claimed that the changes which appeared as a result of the introduction of standardization motivated them to compete against others health care institutions. Conclusions. Medical staff in the research claimed that the changes after the introduction of standardization resulted in work organization improvement. Nurses and medical rescue workers more often claimed (the result being statistically significant) that their work organization improved after the standard implementation. Most of the respondents were convinced about the benefits of standardization implementation. Changes that took place as a result of the introduction of quality management system based on ISO are a motivating factor for competing against other health care institutions. The system of quality insurance based on ISO is constructed in such a way so as to strive for satisfying constantly changing customers' needs, because quality is not an ideal notion but a goal that needs to be pursued.
Luczaj L.,University of Rzeszow |
Nieroda Z.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Ecology of Food and Nutrition | Year: 2011
The gathering of 17 folk taxa of edible fungi (most commonly Boletus edulis, Leccinum spp., Xerocomus spp., Suillus spp., Cantharellus cibarius, Armillaria spp., Russula spp., Lactarius salmonicolor, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus erythropus) was recorded in three villages in southeast Poland, but only 13 of them are gathered by children. Gender and age differences were small (apart from the fact that more adults than children collect non- Boletaceae species), and relatives of both sexes took part in teaching children about mushrooms, although fathers were most frequently mentioned as first teachers. Collecting mushrooms, mainly for own use, sometimes for sale, is still a culturally significant activity. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Luczaj L.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2011
Herbal bouquets are blessed all over Poland on Assumption Day (August 15th). They used to contain many species of crops and medicinal herbs, mainly collected from the wild. Due to transformations in landscape and lifestyle in rural areas, the composition of the bouquets has been changing. The aim of the study was to document the present composition of bouquets using photographs (etic perspective) and questionnaires (emic perspective). The questionnaires asked informants about perceived changes in the bouquets over their lifetime, and the results are supplemented with some 19th and 20th century local publications. The study was carried out in SE Poland, around the towns of Krosno and Jaslo. Photographs of 174 bouquets were taken, and 133 questionnaires, mainly from older informants, were obtained. On average a photographed bouquet contained nearly eight species of plants and an average informant knew of the use of over ten species in a bouquet. The frequency of species in photos and questionnaires was surprisingly similar. However in questionnaires people did not usually list ornamental flowers, now increasingly present in the bouquets, and listed several plants which used to be blessed (e.g. Papaver somniferum L., Calendula officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert) yet were hardly ever seen in photos.
Luczaj L.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010
Aims of study: The aim of this paper is to compare the presence of wild green vegetables in four ethnobotanical questionnaires. This range of surveys offers a rich diachronic perspective, possibly unique in ethnobotany. Materials and methods: Four archival questionnaires (by other researchers), whose results have been only partly published, were analyzed. They are Rostafiński's questionnaire of 1883-1909, the Gajek team's questionnaires of 1948-1949 and 1964-1969, and Stoličná and Kłodnicki's questionnaire of 2000-2003. Results: Green shoots or leaves of least 58 species (belonging to 43 genera) of wild plants have been used as green vegetables or culinary herbs for nutritional purposes since the 19th century. The disappearance of wild green vegetables from the Polish diet was a gradual process, in which the sequence of disappearance of the species from diet was as follows: (1) Aegopodium & Heracleum, (2) Cirsium, Sinapis & Raphanus, (3) Urtica, (4) Chenopodium, (5) Oxalis, (6) Rumex. In Poland, within the studied time scale, there was no tradition of incorporating more than a few species of wild greens in one dish. Local people usually utilized a small number of taxa, but in large quantities, resorting to some other available species only in times of famine. Conclusions: The relatively low number of wild green vegetables utilized has gradually decreased to practically none, mainly due to replacement by a few cultivated vegetables. This process must have started well before the 19th century, but became most dramatic throughout the 20th century. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dems M.,Technical University of Lodz |
Lachecinski S.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz |
Wiak S.,Technical University of Lodz
Przeglad Elektrotechniczny | Year: 2010
The paper presents the optimization calculation of the big power low voltage induction motor, using the selected algorithms of global optimization, i.e., particle swarm optimization PSO. The influence of the exploitation limitations and the influence of the extension of the lower and upper limits imposed on the continuous decision variables on the result of the optimal calculations were examined.
Pytel K.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz |
Nawarycz T.,Medical University of Lódz
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010
The article presents the results of the analysis of the distribution of individuals in a modified genetic algorithm for solving function optimization problems. In the proposed modification of the genetic algorithm, we use the fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The authors proposed the FLC, which estimates all individuals in the population and modifies the probability of the selection to the parents' pool and the probability of the mutation of their genes. In the article we present the results of the analysis of the distribution of individuals in all generations of the algorithm. We compared the results of the elementary algorithm and the algorithm with the adaptation of the selection and mutation probabilities. The new algorithm has been tested on a number of sophisticated functions with satisfactory results. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Denys A.,Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz
International Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013
The paper presents epidemiological threats involving viral infections, particularly of the respiratory system, due to natural processes or bioterrorist attack. Influenza viruses and viral hemorrhagic fevers are of special importance. Present epidemiological threats to Poland have also been considered. Effectiveness of prevention and treatment of viral diseases is limited. Open country borders, more and more common arrivals of foreigners pose a risk of emerging tropical diseases. Thus changes in doctor training and organization aiming at reducing potential sanitary losses are necessary.