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Miettunen J.,University of Oulu | Miettunen J.,Academy of Finland | Jaaskelainen E.,University of Oulu
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2010

Previous single studies have found inconsistent results on sex differences in positive schizotypy, women scoring mainly higher than men, whereas in negative schizotypy studies have often found that men score higher than women. However, information on the overall effect is unknown. In this study, meta-analytic methods were used to estimate sex differences in Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales developed to measure schizotypal traits and psychosis proneness. We also studied the effect of the sample characteristics on possible differences. Studies on healthy populations were extensively collected; the required minimum sample size was 50. According to the results, men scored higher on the scales of negative schizotypy, ie, in the Physical Anhedonia Scale (n=23 studies, effect size, Cohen d=0.59, z test P<.001) and Social Anhedonia Scale (n=14, d=0.44, P<.001). Differences were virtually nonexistent in the measurements of the positive schizotypy, ie, the Magical Ideation Scale (n=29, d=-0.01, P=.74) and Perceptual Aberration Scale (n=22, d=-0.08, P=.05). The sex difference was larger in studies with nonstudent and older samples on the Perceptual Aberration Scale (d=-0.19 vs d=-0.03, P<.05). This study was the first one to pool studies on sex differences in these scales. The gender differences in social anhedonia both in nonclinical samples and in schizophrenia may relate to a broader aspect of social and interpersonal deficits.


The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35. © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Okhotin A.,Academy of Finland | Okhotin A.,University of Turku
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2010

Equations with formal languages as unknowns using all Boolean operations and concatenation are studied. Their main properties, such as solution existence and uniqueness, are characterized by first-order formulae. It is shown that testing solution existence is Π1-complete, while solution uniqueness and existence of a least and of a greatest solution are all Π2-complete problems. The families of languages defined by components of unique, least and greatest solutions of such systems are shown to coincide with the classes of recursive, recursively enumerable and co-recursively enumerable sets, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Researchers at the University of Jyväskylä and Colorado State University have for the first time ever determined the dynamical behavior of the ligand layer of a water-soluble gold nanocluster in solution. The breakthrough opens a way towards controllable strategies for the functionalization of ligated nanoparticles for applications. The work at the University of Jyväskylä was supported by the Academy of Finland. The research was published in Nature Communications this week. Nanometer-scale gold particles are intensively investigated for applications as catalysts, sensors, drug delivery devices and biological contrast agents and as components in photonics and molecular electronics. The smallest particles have metal cores of only 1 to 2 nm with a few tens to a couple of hundred gold atoms. Their metal cores are covered by a stabilizing organic ligand layer. The molecular formulas and solid-state atomic structure of many of these compounds, called “clusters,” have been resolved during the past few years. Still, it is a considerable challenge to understand their atomic-scale structure and dynamical behavior in the solution phase. This is crucial information that can help researchers understand how nanoclusters interact with the environment. The researchers studied a previously identified molecularly precise nanocluster that has 102 gold atoms and 44 thiol ligands. The solid-state structure of this cluster was resolved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in 2007. The ligand shell has a low symmetry and produces a large number of signals in conventional proton-NMR measurement. The researchers achieved a full assignment of all signals to specific thiol ligands by using a combination of correlated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, density functional theory computations and molecular dynamics simulations.   The Finnish researchers at Jyväskylä have previously used this specific cluster material, for instance, for structural studies of enteroviruses. “Now that we know exactly which ligand produces which NMR signal, we can proceed with precise studies on how this nanocluster interacts with the chemical and biological environment in the water phase. This gives unprecedented potential to understand and control the inorganic-organic interfaces that are relevant to hybrid inorganic-biological materials,” says Academy Professor Hannu Häkkinen from the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä. Häkkinen coordinated the work of the Finnish-U.S. team. The researchers involved in the work are Kirsi Salorinne, Sami Malola, Xi Chen, and Hannu Häkkinen from the University of Jyväskylä, and O. Andrea Wong, Christopher D. Rithner, and Christopher J. Ackerson from Colorado State University. The computational work was done at the CSC — the Finnish IT Centre for Science.  Release Date: January 21, 2016 Source: Academy of Finland


The proton NMR spectrum originating from the ligand layer of the Au102 nanoparticle in water (left). The spectrum has been fully interpreted by assigning the observed signals (peaks) to all of the 22 symmetry-unique thiol ligands numbered in the solid state structure of the Au102 particle (right). From ref. 1. Researchers at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Colorado State University, USA, have for the first time ever determined the dynamical behaviour of the ligand layer of a water-soluble gold nanocluster in solution. The breakthrough opens a way towards controllable strategies for the functionalisation of ligated nanoparticles for applications. The work at the University of Jyväskylä was supported by the Academy of Finland. The research was published in Nature Communications on 21 January 2016. Nanometre-scale gold particles are intensively investigated for applications as catalysts, sensors, drug delivery devices and biological contrast agents and as components in photonics and molecular electronics. The smallest particles have metal cores of only 1–2 nm with a few tens to a couple of hundred gold atoms. Their metal cores are covered by a stabilising organic ligand layer. The molecular formulas and solid-state atomic structure of many of these compounds, called "clusters", have been resolved during the past few years. Still, it is a considerable challenge to understand their atomic-scale structure and dynamical behaviour in the solution phase. This is crucial information that can help researchers understand how nanoclusters interact with the environment. The researchers studied a previously identified molecularly precise nanocluster that has 102 gold atoms and 44 thiol ligands (Figure 1, right). The solid-state structure of this cluster was resolved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in 2007. The ligand shell has a low symmetry and produces a large number of signals in conventional proton-NMR measurement (Figure 1, left). The researchers achieved a full assignment of all signals to specific thiol ligands by using a combination of correlated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, density functional theory computations and molecular dynamics simulations. The Finnish researchers at Jyväskylä have previously used this specific cluster material, for instance, for structural studies of enteroviruses. "Now that we know exactly which ligand produces which NMR signal, we can proceed with precise studies on how this nanocluster interacts with the chemical and biological environment in the water phase. This gives unprecedented potential to understand and control the inorganic-organic interfaces that are relevant to hybrid inorganic-biological materials," says Academy Professor Hannu Häkkinen from the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä. Häkkinen coordinated the work of the Finnish-US team. More information: Kirsi Salorinne et al. Conformation and dynamics of the ligand shell of a water-soluble Au102 nanoparticle, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10401

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