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Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Jiang Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the immune organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 20-d recovery to measure the acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Na+/K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, we also investigated histopathological changes and pesticide residues in the spleen and head kidney. The results revealed that the responses of SOD, MDA, ALP, ACP, and Na+/K+-ATPase to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF combination exposure presented in a dose-dependent manner. The ACP activity and MDA content were significantly induced with increasing concentrations of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF. However, the enzyme activities (SOD, ALP, and Na+/K+-ATPase) were reduced under exposure to increasing concentrations of these compounds. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the spleens and head kidneys tissues exhibited dose-dependency. Pathological changes included tissue damage that was more severe with increasing exposure doses. SOD activity negatively correlated with MDA accumulation. The biochemical parameters exhibited sensitivity to ATR and CPF, suggesting that they may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wang C.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wu H.,Academy of Agricultural science of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wang Z.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wu H.,Academy of Agricultural science of Heilongjiang Province | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wu H.,Academy of Agricultural science of Heilongjiang Province | Sun G.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Insecticides and herbicides are widely used in modern agricultural production. The intensive use of insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and herbicide atrazine (ATR) has resulted in serious environmental problems. Herein, we investigated alteration in activity and mRNA levels of AChE in the liver, kidney and gill from common carp after 40. d exposure to CPF and ATR alone or in combination and 20. d recovery treatment. Results indicated that activity and mRNA levels of AChE at all high-dose groups have been significantly decreased after CPF and ATR alone or ATR/CPF mixture exposure, and the changes were improved in the end of recovery tests in varying degrees, the activity and gene expression of AChE in the joint toxicity of ATR and CPF groups were significantly lower than that in the single toxicant group. Our study suggests that the decrease of AChE activity observed at all high-dose groups (CPF and ATR alone or in combination) may be directly related to a lower AChE expression, and the joint toxicity of ATR and CPF is higher than ATR and CPF alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Qin S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Qin S.,Key Laboratory of Fruit Quality Development and Regulation of Liaoning Province | Jiao K.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Jiao K.,Academy of Agricultural science of Heilongjiang Province | And 4 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2016

In this study, we investigated the effects of planting three types of forage crops in an apple orchard on the soil microbial community structure. The apple orchard was intercropped with native grasses (NG), red clover (RC; Trifolium pratense L.), ryegrass (RE; Trifolium repens L.), and no vegetation (CT control; clean tillage). We obtained soil samples from depths of 0–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm from the different treatment plots in the orchard and analysed them using a high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. The three forage crops had affected the soil bacterial and fungal community structures. Compared with CT control, intercropping with NG increased the proportion of Acidobacteria and reduced those of Nitrospirae and Verrucomicrobia, whereas intercropping with RC increased the proportions of Nitrospirae and Verrucomicrobia and reduced that of Planctomycetes. Intercropping with RE increased the proportions of Nitrospirae and Chloroflexi, whereas reduced that of Acidobacteria. Furthermore, unlike in the other treatments, intercropping with NG increased the proportion of Zygomycota in the 0–20-cm soil layer. Intercropping with RC increased the proportion of Chytridiomycota in all the three soil layers, whereas intercropping with RE increased the proportion of Basidiomycota in the 20–40-cm soil layer. Collectively, these findings suggest that intercropping with forage crops, especially RC, in an apple orchard, could alter soil microbial community structure. In our previous study, we showed that microbial sole-carbon-source utilisation is changed by intercropping with forage crops; thus, it can be considered as an effective approach to improve the efficiency of soil C cycling in the apple orchard by altering the microbial community structure. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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