Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science

Harbin, China

Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science

Harbin, China
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Sun J.,Michigan State University | TONG Y.-X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Liu J.,Michigan State University
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2017

International food trade has become a key driving force of agricultural land-use changes in trading countries, which has influenced food production and the global environment. Researchers have studied agricultural land-use changes and related environmental issues across multi-trading countries together, but most studies rely on statistic data without spatial attributes. However, agricultural land-use changes are spatially heterogeneous. Uncovering spatial attributes can reveal more critical information that is of scientific significance and has policy implications for enhancing food security and protecting the environment. Based on an integrated framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances), we studied spatial attributes of soybean land changes within and among trading countries at the same time. Three distant countries – Brazil, China, and the United States – constitute an excellent example of telecoupled systems through the process of soybean trade. Our results presented the spatial distribution of soybean land changes – highlighting the hotspots of soybean gain and soybean loss, and indicated these changes were spatially clustered, different across multi-spatial scales, and varied among the trading countries. Assisted by the results, global challenges like food security and biodiversity loss within and among trading countries can be targeted and managed efficiently. Our work provides simultaneously spatial information for understanding agricultural land-use changes caused by international food trade globally, highlights the needs of coordination among trading countries, and promotes global sustainability. © 2017 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Li J.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Lu S.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People's Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Zhang Y.,University of Notre Dame | Zhang Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Mayfield J.A.,University of Notre Dame | Ploplis V.A.,University of Notre Dame | Castellino F.J.,University of Notre Dame
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Cluster 2b streptokinase (SK2b), secreted by invasive skin-trophic strains of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), is a human plasminogen (hPg) activator that optimally functions when human plasma hPg is bound, via its kringle-2 domain, to cognizant bacterial cells through the a1a2 domain of the major cellular hPg receptor, Plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M-like protein (PAM). Another class of streptokinases (SK1), secreted primarily by GAS strains that possess affinity for pharyngeal infections, does not require PAM-bound hPg for optimal activity. We find herein that replacement of the central β-domain of SK2b with the same module from SK1 reduces the dependency of SK2b on PAM, and the converse is true when the β-domain of SK1 is replaced with this same region of SK2b. These data suggest that simple evolutionary shuttling of protein domains in GAS can be employed by GAS to rapidly generate strains that differ in tissue tropism and invasive capability and allow the bacteria to survive different challenges by the host. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Guo Z.-Y.,China Agricultural University | Kong C.-H.,China Agricultural University | Wang J.-G.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.-F.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Despite an increase in the understanding of the soybean isoflavones involved in root-colonizing symbioses, relatively little is known about their levels in the rhizosphere and their interactions with the soil microbial community. Based on a 13-year experiment of continuous soybean monocultures, in the present study we quantified isoflavones in the soybean rhizosphere and analyzed the soil microbial community structure by examining its phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile. Two isoflavones, daidzein (7, 4'-dihydroxyisoflavone) and genistein (5,7,4'- trihydroxyisoflavone), were detected in the rhizosphere soil of soybean plants, with the concentrations in the field varying with duration of mono-cropping. Genistein concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 μg g-1 dry soil over different years, while daidzein concentrations rarely exceeded 0.6 μg g-1 dry soil. PLFA profiling showed that the signature lipid biomarkers of bacteria and fungi varied throughout the years of the study, particularly in mono-cropping year 2, and mono-cropping years 6-8. Principal component analysis clearly identified differences in the composition of PLFA during different years under mono-cropping. There was a positive correlation between the daidzein concentrations and soil fungi, whereas the genistein concentration showed a correlation with the total PLFA, fungi, bacteria, Gram (+) bacteria and aerobic bacteria in the soil microbial community. Both isoflavones were easily degraded in soil, resulting in short half-lives. Concentrations as small as 1 μg g-1 dry soil were sufficient to elicit changes in microbial community structure. A discriminant analysis of PLFA patterns showed that changes in microbial community structures were induced by both the addition of daidzein or genistein and incubation time. We conclude that daidzein and genistein released into the soybean rhizosphere may act as allelochemicals in the interactions between root and soil microbial community in a long-term mono-cropped soybean field. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun X.D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Soy proteins are very important protein source for human being and livestock. Enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein can enhance or reduce its functional properties and improve its nutritious value. Soy protein hydrolysates were primarily used as functional food ingredients, flavour and nutritious enhancers, protein substitute, and clinical products. Conditions for hydrolysis were usually mild, whereas recently high pressure treatment attracted more interest. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) was usually between 1% and 39.5%. The main problem associated with proteolytic hydrolysis of soy protein was production of bitter taste, hydrolysates coagulation and high cost of enzymes. Bitterness reduction can be achieved by control of DH, selective separation of bitter peptides from hydrolysates, treatment of hydrolysates with exo-peptidases, addition of various components [adenosine monophosphate (AMP), some amino acids, monosodium glutamate (MSG), etc.] to block or mask the bitter taste, and modification of taste signalling. Hydrolysates coagulation can be resolved by selecting appropriate enzymes and by applying immobilisation technology the production cost can be reduced. Enzymatic hydrolysis also enhances bioactivity of soy proteins through conversion of glycosides to aglycones, increasing antioxidant and immunoregulatory properties. Finally, future works have been discussed. © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Han G.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2014

Modernization and effective management in modern Chinese agriculture are the key of future success in Chinese agriculture development and food production. Based on an analysis of the agriculture structure and adaptation of the industrial management experiences in China, this review addresses how to achieve an effective and dynamic management in agriculture in the future. Chinese agriculture is in the process being transformed from individual, small, family-based farmers to cooperate-based large-scale farmers with modern agriculture machinery. To permit a smooth advancement and transition of Chinese agriculture from primitive traditional agriculture to a modern and machine-based agriculture as well as to enhance the agricultural productivity when total area of arable land is declining, a dynamic and sufficient management is the basis. However, there are a number of challenges and limitations: (1) Chinese farmers have in general limited education, (2) the small family-based agriculture tradition and structure, (3) the lack of experience in agriculture and innovation, and (4) short-term profit-based mentality. This review will discuss those challenges and propose corresponding solutions to assure the successful agricultural development in China by effective and dynamic management. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Hu X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xiao Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | Niu K.,Northeast Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

An efficient system for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to prepare reducing sugar in a series of functional acidic ionic liquids with low synthetic cost and excellent dissolved and catalytic activity was established. High yield of reducing sugar was obtained with the use of 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HMIM]Cl). The use of ionic liquid under ultrasound irradiation greatly improved the yield of total reducing sugar. The optimum reaction conditions were as follows: ratio of water/sample was 5 (w/w), ratio of IL/sample was 25 (w/w), 70 °C, 120 min and the yield of reducing sugar was up to 53.27 mg from 0.2 g of soybean straw and 50.03 mg from 0.2 g of corn straw. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fan F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wei D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2011

The microbiology underpinning soil nitrogen cycling in northeast China remains poorly understood. These agricultural systems are typified by widely contrasting temperature, ranging from -40 to 38°C. In a long-term site in this region, the impacts of mineral and organic fertilizer amendments on potential nitrification rate (PNR) were determined. PNR was found to be suppressed by long-term mineral fertilizer treatment but enhanced by manure treatment. The abundance and structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques. The abundance of AOA was reduced by all fertilizer treatments, while the opposite response was measured for AOB, leading to a six- to 60-fold reduction in AOA/AOB ratio. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation across fertilization treatments, whereas the structure of the AOB community was highly responsive. PNR was correlated with community structure of AOB rather than that of AOA. Variation in the community structure of AOB was linked to soil pH, total carbon, and nitrogen contents induced by different long-term fertilization regimes. The results suggest that manure amendment establishes conditions which select for an AOB community type which recovers mineral fertilizer-suppressed soil nitrification. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sun X.D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | Holley R.A.,University of Manitoba
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2012

The shelf life of packaged fresh red meats is most frequently determined by the activity of microorganisms, which results in the development of off-odors, gas, and slime, but it is also influenced by biochemical factors such as lipid radical chain and pigment oxidation causing undesirable flavors and surface discoloration. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated meats are Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter/Moraxella (Psychrobacter), Shewanella putrefaciens, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The spoilage potential of these organisms and factors influencing their impact on meat quality are discussed. High O2-modified atmosphere (80% O2+ 20% CO2) packaging (MAP) is commonly used for meat retail display but vacuum packaging remains the major MAP method used for meat distribution. Two-step master packaging (outer anoxic-20% CO2+ 80% N2/inner gas-permeable film) is used for centralized MAP distribution, but CO use (0.4%) in low O2 packaging systems is limited by consumer uncertainty that CO may mask spoilage. Active packaging where the film contributes more than a gas/physical barrier is an important technology and has been studied widely. Its application in combination with MAP is very promising but impediments remain to its widespread industrial use. The influence of processing technologies including modified atmospheres on lipid oxidation and discoloration of meats are analyzed. Because both organic acids and antioxidants have been evaluated for their effects on microorganism growth, in concert with the prevention of lipid oxidation, work in this area is examined. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Satoh T.,Hiroshima University | Ohba A.,Hiroshima University | Liu Z.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Inagaki T.,Hiroshima University | Satoh A.K.,Hiroshima University
eLife | Year: 2015

In eukaryotes, most integral membrane proteins are synthesized, integrated into the membrane, and folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We screened the mutants affecting rhabdomeric expression of rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) in the Drosophila photoreceptors and found that dPob/EMC3, EMC1, and EMC8/9, Drosophila homologs of subunits of ER membrane protein complex (EMC), are essential for stabilization of immature Rh1 in an earlier step than that at which another Rh1-specific chaperone (NinaA) acts. dPob/EMC3 localizes to the ER and associates with EMC1 and calnexin. Moreover, EMC is required for the stable expression of other multi-pass transmembrane proteins such as minor rhodopsins Rh3 and Rh4, transient receptor potential, and Na+K+-ATPase, but not for a secreted protein or type I single-pass transmembrane proteins. Furthermore, we found that dPob/EMC3 deficiency induces rhabdomere degeneration in a lightindependent manner. These results collectively indicate that EMC is a key factor in the biogenesis of multi-pass transmembrane proteins, including Rh1, and its loss causes retinal degeneration. © Copyright Satoh et al.

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