Academy of Agricultural Science

Tianjin, China

Academy of Agricultural Science

Tianjin, China
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Xin M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Cao M.,Southwest University | Liu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren Y.,Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

Two novel negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses were identified in watermelon plants and named watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 and 2 (WCLaV-1 and -2), respectively. The multipartite genomes consist of three RNA molecules of ~6.8, 1.4, and 1.3 kb. The genomes and the deduced proteins of RNA1 and RNA3 show features resembling those of members in the genus Phlebovirus and Tenuivirus; however, the predicted proteins encoded by RNA2 are related to the movement protein (MP) in the genus Ophiovirus and Emaravirus. Furthermore, these two viruses define a novel clade in the family Phenuiviridae, order Bunyavirales, which is phylogenetically related to the viruses in the above four genera. Moreover, after mechanical inoculation with WCLaV-1 seedlings of the natural host watermelon plants develop crinkling similar to those observed in the field. These findings enhance our understanding of the evolution and the classification of ssRNA viruses. © 2017 Xin, Cao, Liu, Ren, Zhou and Wang.

Shang X.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Miao X.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Wang D.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Tangmuke,Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau of Ruoergai County | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Aim of study: In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Materials and methods: Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. Results: According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestocks diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Conclusion: Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Liu Q.,Academy of Agricultural science | Liu Q.,Academy of Military Medical science | Li M.-W.,Academy of Agricultural science | Li M.-W.,Guangdong Ocean University | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim H.-J.,Wageningen University | Kim H.-J.,Nongwoo Bio. Co. | Lee H.-R.,Wageningen University | Lee H.-R.,Nongwoo Bio. Co. | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato. The Mexican species Solanum demissum is well known as a good resistance source. Among the 11 R gene differentials, which were introgressed from S. demissum, especially R8 and R9 differentials showed broad spectrum resistance both under laboratory and under field conditions. In order to gather more information about the resistance of the R8 and R9 differentials, F1 and BC1 populations were made by crossing Mastenbroek (Ma) R8 and R9 clones to susceptible plants. Parents and offspring plants were examined for their pathogen recognition specificities using agroinfiltration with known Avr genes, detached leaf assays (DLA) with selected isolates, and gene-specific markers. An important observation was the discrepancy between DLA and field trial results for Pi isolate IPO-C in all F1 and BC1 populations, so therefore also field trial results were included in our characterization. It was shown that in MaR8 and MaR9, respectively, at least four (R3a, R3b, R4, and R8) and seven (R1, Rpi-abpt1, R3a, R3b, R4, R8, R9) R genes were present. Analysis of MaR8 and MaR9 offspring plants, that contained different combinations of multiple resistance genes, showed that R gene stacking contributed to the Pi recognition spectrum. Also, using a Pi virulence monitoring system in the field, it was shown that stacking of multiple R genes strongly delayed the onset of late blight symptoms. The contribution of R8 to this delay was remarkable since a plant that contained only the R8 resistance gene still conferred a delay similar to plants with multiple resistance genes, like, e. g., cv Sarpo Mira. Using this "de-stacking" approach, many R gene combinations can be made and tested in order to select broad spectrum R gene stacks that potentially provide enhanced durability for future application in new late blight resistant varieties. © 2011 The Author(s).

Yi J.,Academy of Agricultural science | Liu C.,Academy of Agricultural science | Chen B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu S.,China Pharmaceutical University
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

A virulent Newcastle disease virus strain was isolated from diseased chickens in Shanghai, China. The isolated strain was initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs and specific-pathogen-free chickens and was typed as neurotropic by intracloacal inoculation of chickens. The isolated strain had a dibasic amino acid motif in the fusion protein cleavage site sequence required for systemic replication in the host cell. The strain fell into subgenotype VIId by phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene. Although these results demonstrated some sequence similarity between the isolated strain and strains responsible for outbreaks of Newcastle disease in China and Taiwan, the unusually high mortality (86.4%) set this strain aside from other VII strains. Finally, a cross-protection assay demonstrated that La Sota and clone 30 live vaccines could not protect chickens from infection with the isolated strain, with a zero survival rate being observed when chickens were challenged with a high dose of virulent VIId virus. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Mao J.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Mao J.,Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro products Chengdu | Mao J.,University of Sichuan | Lei S.,Academy of Agricultural Science | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in red wine and other foodstuffs. It is widely studied due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. Nowadays, liquid chromatography is the main method for OTA analysis. With the recent development on the column technology, core-shell columns were commercialized in recent years. It is with high performance while maintain low back pressure thus could be used on conventional HPLC instrument. However, as current conventional benchmark high-performance liquid chromatographs were not initially designed for the recently developed high-efficiency packed columns, the HPLC-FLD parameter should be carefully investigated. In this work the performance of chromatography column packed with 2.6 μm core-shell particles on conventional benchmark HPLC were investigated. Parameters including flow rate, mobile phase composition (volume fraction of ACN in water), temperature, response time, sampling frequency, and injection volume for quantitative analysis of OTA in red wines were investigated in detail. The results show that core-shell column is more effective and faster to be operated on conventional HPLC than other total porous particle packed column. Optimized conditions provided a method for the separation of OTA in less than 5 min, with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.0025 μg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.0083 μg/L in the sample, respectively. The developed method was validated with red wine samples with OTA concentrations ranging from 0.0028 to 0.0437 μg/L. The use of a core-shell column allows highly efficient, sensitive, and accurate determination of OTA with an outstanding sample throughout. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ling S.,Academy of Agricultural science | Zesheng Z.,Naval Command College
Proceedings - 2013 4th International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation, ICDMA 2013 | Year: 2013

In this paper, we discuss mainly a new method for building the fuzzy controller for controlling aeration devices in the grain-storage system. This new fuzzy-control method is used for designing a special fuzzy-control strategy for the aeration management or in-bin drying stored grain. First, the method defines the fuzzy-control base variables which consist of the fuzzy-control membership function. Then, it constructs the fuzzy-control rule base which supports the fuzzy rule inference. Next, it implements the fuzzy rule inference, so that the rules in the rule base can determine the trace of action that the aeration devices must follow. Finally, it translates the result of the fuzzy inference from a linguistic concept to a crisp output value to drive the aeration devices. Thus, the aeration devices are automatically operated at suitable times to implement the scientific management for in-bin drying stored grain. © 2013 IEEE.

Jo K.-R.,Wageningen University | Jo K.-R.,Academy of Agricultural science | Arens M.,Wageningen University | Kim T.-Y.,Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The use of resistant varieties is an important tool in the management of late blight, which threatens potato production worldwide. Clone MaR8 from the Mastenbroek differential set has strong resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. The F1 progeny of a cross between the susceptible cultivar Concurrent and MaR8 were assessed for late blight resistance in field trials inoculated with an incompatible P. infestans isolate. A 1:1 segregation of resistance and susceptibility was observed, indicating that the resistance gene referred to as R8, is present in simplex in the tetraploid MaR8 clone. NBS profiling and successive marker sequence comparison to the potato and tomato genome draft sequences, suggested that the R8 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome IX and not on the short arm of chromosome XI as was suggested previously. Analysis of SSR, CAPS and SCAR markers confirmed that R8 was on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome IX. R gene cluster directed profiling markers CDPSw54 and CDPSw55 flanked the R8 gene at the distal end (1 cM). CDPTm21-1, CDPTm21-2 and CDPTm22 flanked the R8 gene on the proximal side (2 cM). An additional co-segregating marker (CDPHero3) was found, which will be useful for marker assisted breeding and map based cloning of R8. © 2011 The Author(s).

Zhou G.L.,Liaocheng University | Zhang G.L.,Academy of Agricultural science | Cao Y.,Academy of Agricultural science | Jin H.G.,Academy of Agricultural science
Meat Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to identify alternative transcripts and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR) of bovine malic enzyme (ME1) gene and to evaluate the extent to which polymorphisms were associated with meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle. Two transcripts, long transcript and short transcript that differ in the length of the 3′ UTR were cloned. A single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in 3′ UTR and a restriction site for endonuclease ME1-Dra I was also found. The result revealed that the ME1-Dra I genotypes had a significant effect on cooking loss, pH measured 24h post-mortem (pH24h) and eye muscle area (P<0.05). In conclusion, the SNPs may be used as DNA markers to select for meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Jo K.-R.,Wageningen University | Jo K.-R.,Academy of Agricultural science | Kim C.-J.,Academy of Agricultural science | Kim S.-J.,Academy of Agricultural science | And 6 more authors.
BMC Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Background: Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties.Results: We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated.Conclusions: We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a stack of late blight R genes. Marker-free transformation is less genotype dependent and less prone to vector backbone integration as compared to marker-assisted transformation. Thereby, this study provides an important tool for the successful deployment of R genes in agriculture and contributes to the production of potentially durable late blight resistant potatoes. © 2014 Jo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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