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Ling S.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Zesheng Z.,Naval Command College
Proceedings - 2013 4th International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation, ICDMA 2013 | Year: 2013

In this paper, we discuss mainly a new method for building the fuzzy controller for controlling aeration devices in the grain-storage system. This new fuzzy-control method is used for designing a special fuzzy-control strategy for the aeration management or in-bin drying stored grain. First, the method defines the fuzzy-control base variables which consist of the fuzzy-control membership function. Then, it constructs the fuzzy-control rule base which supports the fuzzy rule inference. Next, it implements the fuzzy rule inference, so that the rules in the rule base can determine the trace of action that the aeration devices must follow. Finally, it translates the result of the fuzzy inference from a linguistic concept to a crisp output value to drive the aeration devices. Thus, the aeration devices are automatically operated at suitable times to implement the scientific management for in-bin drying stored grain. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Kim H.-J.,Wageningen University | Kim H.-J.,Nongwoo Bio Co. | Lee H.-R.,Wageningen University | Lee H.-R.,Nongwoo Bio Co. | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato. The Mexican species Solanum demissum is well known as a good resistance source. Among the 11 R gene differentials, which were introgressed from S. demissum, especially R8 and R9 differentials showed broad spectrum resistance both under laboratory and under field conditions. In order to gather more information about the resistance of the R8 and R9 differentials, F1 and BC1 populations were made by crossing Mastenbroek (Ma) R8 and R9 clones to susceptible plants. Parents and offspring plants were examined for their pathogen recognition specificities using agroinfiltration with known Avr genes, detached leaf assays (DLA) with selected isolates, and gene-specific markers. An important observation was the discrepancy between DLA and field trial results for Pi isolate IPO-C in all F1 and BC1 populations, so therefore also field trial results were included in our characterization. It was shown that in MaR8 and MaR9, respectively, at least four (R3a, R3b, R4, and R8) and seven (R1, Rpi-abpt1, R3a, R3b, R4, R8, R9) R genes were present. Analysis of MaR8 and MaR9 offspring plants, that contained different combinations of multiple resistance genes, showed that R gene stacking contributed to the Pi recognition spectrum. Also, using a Pi virulence monitoring system in the field, it was shown that stacking of multiple R genes strongly delayed the onset of late blight symptoms. The contribution of R8 to this delay was remarkable since a plant that contained only the R8 resistance gene still conferred a delay similar to plants with multiple resistance genes, like, e. g., cv Sarpo Mira. Using this "de-stacking" approach, many R gene combinations can be made and tested in order to select broad spectrum R gene stacks that potentially provide enhanced durability for future application in new late blight resistant varieties. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Xie D.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xie D.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Li Z.,Northeast Agricultural University
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Winter wheat can regrow surviving the cold winter in extremely cold areas and this type of cold resistance is a very attractive quality. Very little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of cold resistance in winter wheat, particularly the identity of the cold resistance genes. In this study, RNA was extracted from the crown of winter wheat varieties with different cold resistances subjected to various low-temperature treatments. Using the Solexa/Illumina sequencing platform, 60 million sequencing reads were obtained and these reads were assembled into 80, 704 unigenes. Based on the method of known protein similarity search, we acquired 51, 929 sequences that were consistent with the standard E-value cut-off of 10-5. Additionally, 22, 724 sequences were annotated by gene ontology (GO) term, 31, 964 sequences were annotated by Swiss-Prot, 18, 764 sequences were clustered into 43 types by Clusters of Orthologous Groups classifications (COG) and 29, 553 sequences are assigned to 125 pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG). Furthermore, transcription factor genes involved in cold and dehydration resistance are more highly expressed in Dongnongdongmai 1, which is cold resistant, compared to Jimai 22, which is cold sensitive. The expression of genes in Phenylalanine metabolism, Alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, Gluathione metabolism, as well as Starch and sucrose metabolism pathway was triggered by LT. In addition, these pathways had difference between the two winter wheat varieties. We performed cluster analysis for the differentially expressed genes. Eight genes were randomly selected for expression quantity validation by quantitative RT-PCR. These results of the gene expression pattern analysis under three low temperature treatments are essentially same as the DGE data. Summarily, we obtained an extensive transcriptome dataset from winter wheat, a non-model whole genome which identifies winter wheat cold resistance genes under low temperature conditions. Source


Liu Q.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Liu Q.,Academy of Military Medical Science | Li M.-W.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Li M.-W.,Guangdong Ocean University | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yi J.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Liu C.,Academy of Agricultural Science | Chen B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu S.,China Pharmaceutical University
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

A virulent Newcastle disease virus strain was isolated from diseased chickens in Shanghai, China. The isolated strain was initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs and specific-pathogen-free chickens and was typed as neurotropic by intracloacal inoculation of chickens. The isolated strain had a dibasic amino acid motif in the fusion protein cleavage site sequence required for systemic replication in the host cell. The strain fell into subgenotype VIId by phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene. Although these results demonstrated some sequence similarity between the isolated strain and strains responsible for outbreaks of Newcastle disease in China and Taiwan, the unusually high mortality (86.4%) set this strain aside from other VII strains. Finally, a cross-protection assay demonstrated that La Sota and clone 30 live vaccines could not protect chickens from infection with the isolated strain, with a zero survival rate being observed when chickens were challenged with a high dose of virulent VIId virus. © American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source

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