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Riley I.T.,University of Adelaide | Hou S.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Chen S.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) population densities were determined in spring cereals after harvest in three high-altitude villages in Qinghai, China in order to examine the effect of crop rotations. Two villages were sampled intensively to allow examination of between-field spatial variation. The previous season's crop, including fields where two host crops had been grown in succession, did not appear to influence the final nematode density. A high degree of variation in population density and significant spatial variation appeared to be strongly influenced by the occurrence of hyperparasites, thus masking any possible crop rotation effects. Nevertheless, a third of the fields had final egg densities of greater than 10 eggs/g soil, creating a risk of yield loss if an intolerant host was to be grown in the next year. From the findings, it is suggested that future research should focus on developing locally adapted resistant cultivars and examining factors that determine the efficacy of natural biocontrol. © 2010 Australasian Plant Pathology Society.


Xiao M.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Dong N.,China Agricultural University | Lyu X.,Shihezi University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.


Yan J.,China Agricultural University | Yan J.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Luo Y.,China Agricultural University | Luo Y.,University of California Kearney Research and Extension Center | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. tritici, is of worldwide significance. Quantification of latent infection level is critical to estimate the potential for disease epidemics. In this study, field distribution of latent infection and the corresponding observed disease were studied in two growing seasons from 2009 to 2011 in Gangu, Gansu Province and Shangzhuang, Beijing, China. A previously developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to obtain the molecular disease index (MDX) to quantify the level of latent infection. At 1 to 3 weeks after leaf sampling, the observed disease indices (DX) were assessed in the corresponding experimental sites. The computer software SURFER showed that the spatial distribution patterns of MDX had a linear relationship with DX in field plots with P = 0.01. The aggregation levels of MDX correlated with those of DX in the fields. The disease foci which were correctly detected for latent infections with the real-time PCR for the Gangu and Shangzhuang field plots were 71.4 and 85.7%, respectively. The triadimefon fungicide treatment focused on the detected latent infection foci reduced both the initial inoculum and disease development, resulting in an average reduction in disease area in the field plots of 73 to 81%. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


Gao L.,Northwest University, China | Ma Y.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zhao W.,Northwest University, China | Wei Z.,Northwest University, China | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The genus Cyphellophora includes human- and plant-related species from mammal skin and nails, plant materials, and food. On the basis of analysis of ITS, LSU, TUB2 and RPB1 data and morphological characters, three new species, Cyphellophora phyllostachysdis, C. artocarpi and C. musae, associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease, were added to this genus. The 2D structure of ITS1 and ITS2 confirmed this taxonomic status. Pathogenicity tests on apple fruit indicated that C. artocarpi could be a sooty blotch and flyspeck pathogen of apple. © 2015 Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Xiao L.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zhao Z.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Du D.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Yao Y.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

The development of yellow-seeded cultivars in Brassica rapa (B. rapa) would improve the quality and quantity of available oil. The identification and mapping of the seed coat color gene may aid in the development of yellow-seeded cultivars and facilitate introgression of the yellow-seeded gene into desirable Brassica napus (B. napus) lines through marker-assisted selection. In the current study, we investigated the inheritance of a yellow-seeded landrace in B. rapa, "Dahuang", originating from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Genetic analysis revealed that the phenotype of the yellow-seeded trait in Dahuang is controlled by one recessive gene, termed Brsc1. Mapping of the Brsc1 gene was subsequently conducted in a BC 1 population comprised 456 individuals, derived from (Dahuang × 09A-126) × Dahuang. From a survey of 256 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations, 10 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained. The closest AFLP markers flanking Brsc1, Y10 and Y06, were 0.2 and 0.4 cM away, respectively. Subsequently, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the reference map, the Brsc1 gene was mapped on A09 in B. rapa. Blast analysis revealed that seven AFLP markers showed sequence homology to A09 of B. rapa, wherein six AFLP markers in our map were in the same order as those in A09 of B. rapa. The two closest markers, Y10 and Y06, delimited the Brsc1 gene within a 2.8 Mb interval. Furthermore, Y05 and Y06, the two closest AFLP markers on one side linked to Brsc1, were located in scaffold000059 on A09 of B. rapa, whereas the closet AFLP marker on the opposite side of Brsc1, Y10, was located in scaffold000081 on A09 of B. rapa. Molecular markers developed from these studies may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of yellow-seeded lines in B. rapa and B. napus and expedite the process of map-based cloning of Brsc1. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Xiao M.,Shihezi University | Xiao M.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science | Yang W.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science | Lu X.,Shihezi University | Chi D.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Redox condition and pH are the two most important factors affecting the arsenic (As) form. With changes of arsenic forms, desorption and migration of the soil As are likely to occur. In arid regions, the irrigation can result in the low soil gas permeability. It coupled with large amount of organic matter deposited in sediments can facilitate the formation of the reduction environment, in which iron and manganese oxides are easy to dissolve, and As can be converted into the dissolved forms that move with groundwater. The Qaidam Basin is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with the highest elevation in China. In the basin, there is little rain, the soil pH is 8, and it belongs to a typical arid region with sparse vegetation and high soil pH. The irrigation makes the agricultural cultivation possible here, but also changes the soil redox conditions, creating a good condition for soil As desorption and migration. It is necessary to clarify the influence of irrigation agriculture on soil As distribution and migration. This study aimed to investigate the soil As distribution and its influential factors. A 13.2 hm2 unreclaimed field was selected from the basin for the study. It was reclaimed for wolfberry cultivation. In the field, soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from 22 points for soil As content detection before the cultivation, and in 1, 2, and 3 years of cultivation. Meanwhile, the factors related with agricultural activities were investigated and the soil As content in these factors were determined. The results showed that the soil As content was 0-26.4 mg/kg with the coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.47 before the cultivation, and about 45.5% of soil samples had soil As content exceeding the Green Food production standard of China (20 mg/kg). After 1-3 years of cultivation, the soil As content was clustered about an average of 15.50-15.88 mg/kg, and the numbers of soil samples points exceeding the standard decreased greatly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) spatial distribution map of soil As content revealed that the soil As content before the cultivation was high in the northwest and low in the southeast in the plot, an obvious decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast. With the increase of farming years, the trend was still maintained but not obvious any more. It indicated that the soil arsenic content at depth of 20 cm was in a dynamic equilibrium with the increase of farming years. By calculating the soil As input from pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation water and output from wolfberry fruits and stalk, the study showed that the soil As net input per year was 250 g/hm2. However, the measured soil As did not increased after 3 years of cultivation. Therefore, soil As may have the other output ways other than fruits collection and stalk. Downward migration of soil As was likely an output way, which was needed for validation in future.


Yu D.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Yu D.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri environment in Northwest China | Liang D.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Liang D.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri environment in Northwest China | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Ping’an is a selenium (Se)-rich region located in northeastern Qinghai Province of China. To better understand the selenium geochemical distribution and its potential ecological effects, this field study investigated the Se distribution in the local environment, soil Se bioavailability, and the daily dietary Se intake of Ping’an residents. Concentrations of total Se were determined in soil, plant, water, and food samples. Results showed that Ping’an is generally a Se-rich region in China. High-Se soil mainly distributes in the north of Hongshuiquan Town in the study region. Se concentration in 43 plant samples varied significantly from not detected (nd) to 904 μg/kg, following a descending order of pasture > grain > vegetable > fruit, which was much lower than other regions in China. The drinking water Se concentrations were also significantly lower than the European and Chinese surface water Se standards of 10 and 50 μg/L. The predicted daily dietary Se intake (48 ± 20 μg per person) in Ping’an met the demand of the WHO-recommended Se amount of 55 μg per person. The Se content is high in soil, but low in different kinds of plants and Se intake, indicating that Se that can be taken up by plants was very low. The K2HPO4–KH2PO4-extractable Se in the soil accounted for only 3 % of the total soil Se, indicating that a low soil bioavailable Se might result in low Se accumulation in plant tissues in Ping’an. This might be due to the influences of geochemistry and the inherent properties of the parent materials of these soils. Therefore, further studies need to focus on better understanding the process and influential factors to soil Se bioavailability to successfully utilize the soil Se resource in low-Se-availability areas. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2012

The development of yellow-seeded cultivars in Brassica rapa (B. rapa) would improve the quality and quantity of available oil. The identification and mapping of the seed coat color gene may aid in the development of yellow-seeded cultivars and facilitate introgression of the yellow-seeded gene into desirable Brassica napus (B. napus) lines through marker-assisted selection. In the current study, we investigated the inheritance of a yellow-seeded landrace in B. rapa, Dahuang, originating from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Genetic analysis revealed that the phenotype of the yellow-seeded trait in Dahuang is controlled by one recessive gene, termed Brsc1. Mapping of the Brsc1 gene was subsequently conducted in a BC(1) population comprised 456 individuals, derived from (Dahuang09A-126)Dahuang. From a survey of 256 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations, 10 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained. The closest AFLP markers flanking Brsc1, Y10 and Y06, were 0.2 and 0.4cM away, respectively. Subsequently, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the reference map, the Brsc1 gene was mapped on A09 in B. rapa. Blast analysis revealed that seven AFLP markers showed sequence homology to A09 of B. rapa, wherein six AFLP markers in our map were in the same order as those in A09 of B. rapa. The two closest markers, Y10 and Y06, delimited the Brsc1 gene within a 2.8Mb interval. Furthermore, Y05 and Y06, the two closest AFLP markers on one side linked to Brsc1, were located in scaffold000059 on A09 of B. rapa, whereas the closet AFLP marker on the opposite side of Brsc1, Y10, was located in scaffold000081 on A09 of B. rapa. Molecular markers developed from these studies may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of yellow-seeded lines in B. rapa and B. napus and expedite the process of map-based cloning of Brsc1.


PubMed | Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University and Iowa State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The genus Cyphellophora includes human- and plant-related species from mammal skin and nails, plant materials, and food. On the basis of analysis of ITS, LSU, TUB2 and RPB1 data and morphological characters, three new species, Cyphellophora phyllostachysdis, C. artocarpi and C. musae, associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease, were added to this genus. The 2D structure of ITS1 and ITS2 confirmed this taxonomic status. Pathogenicity tests on apple fruit indicated that C. artocarpi could be a sooty blotch and flyspeck pathogen of apple.


PubMed | Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science and Lanzhou University
Type: | Journal: Journal of plant physiology | Year: 2015

In this study, a new mechanism involving glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and alternative pathways (AP) in salt pretreatment-induced tolerance of highland barley to UV-B radiation was investigated. When highland barley was exposed to UV-B radiation, the G6PDH activity decreased but the AP capacity increased. In contrast, under UV-B+NaCl treatment, the G6PDH activity was restored to the control level and the maximal AP capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities were reached. Glucosamine (Glucm, an inhibitor of G6PDH) obviously inhibited the G6PDH activity in highland barley under UV-B + NaCl treatment and a similar pattern was observed in reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (Asc) contents. Similarly, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, an inhibitor of AOX) significantly reduced the AP capacity in highland barley under UV-B + NaCl treatment. The UV-B-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation was also followed. Further studies indicated that non-functioning of G6PDH or AP under UV-B+NaCl + Glucm or UV-B + NaCl + SHAM treatment also caused damages in photosynthesis and stomatal movement. Western blot analysis confirmed that the alternative oxidase (AOX) and G6PDH were dependent each other in cross tolerance to UV-B and salt. The inhibition of AP or G6PDH activity resulted in a significant accumulation or reduction of NADPH content, respectively, under UV-B+NaCl treatment in highland barley leaves. Taken together, our results indicate that AP and G6PDH mutually regulate and maintain photosynthesis and stomata movement in the cross adaptation of highland barley seedlings to UV-B and salt by modulating redox homeostasis and NADPH content.

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