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Deveau C.S.,Academy for Educational Development AED | Tengia L.,OMARI Project | Mutua C.,Reachout Center Trust | Njoroge S.,The Raphaelites | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies | Year: 2010

This paper examines a number of outpatient addictions treatment programmes developed in various regions of Kenya. The uptake of outpatient services at four sites between 2007 and 2010 has been examined. A field-based follow-up survey was administered to determine abstinence rates among clients who participated in treatment. Factors involved in recovery outcomes are discussed. Utilization of outpatient addictions treatment and retention in services increased over the three-year period, and field-based follow up with clients showed 42% abstinence rates. Copyright © 2010, CRISA Publications.

Sugimoto J.D.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Ahmad S.,University of Melbourne | Rashid M.,JiVitA Project | Shamim A.A.,JiVitA Project | And 2 more authors.
Disasters | Year: 2011

The epidemiology of tornado-related disasters in the developing world is poorly understood. An August 2005 post-tornado cohort study in rural Bangladesh identified elevated levels of death and injury among the elderly (≥ 60 years of age) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.9 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 3.9-20.2) and AOR = 1.6 (95 per cent CI: 1.4-1.8), respectively), as compared to 15-24 year-olds, and among those outdoors versus indoors during the tornado (AOR = 10.4 (95 per cent CI: 5.5-19.9) and AOR = 6.6 (95 per cent CI: 5.8-7.5), respectively). Females were 1.24 times (95 per cent CI: 1.15-1.33) more likely to be injured than males. Elevated risk of injury was significantly associated with structural damage to the house and tin construction materials. Seeking treatment was protective against death among the injured, odds ratio = 0.08 (95 per cent CI: 0.03-0.21). Further research is needed to develop injury prevention strategies and to address disparities in risk between age groups and between men and women. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

Haider R.,Training and Assistance for Health and Nutrition TAHN Foundation | Haider R.,Academy for Educational Development AED | Rasheed S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Sanghvi T.G.,Academy for Educational Development AED | And 4 more authors.
International Breastfeeding Journal | Year: 2010

Background: In Bangladesh, many programs and projects have been promoting breastfeeding since the late 1980 s. Breastfeeding practices, however, have not improved accordingly.Methods: For identifying program-relevant issues to improve breastfeeding in infancy, quantitative data were collected through visits to households (n = 356) in rural Chittagong and urban slums in Dhaka, and qualitative data from sub-samples by applying semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 42), focus group discussions (n = 28), and opportunistic observations (n = 21). Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) (n = 26) were conducted in the above sites and rural Sylhet to determine how best to design further interventions. Our analysis focused on five breastfeeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization: putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth, feeding colostrum and not giving fluids, food or other substances in the first days of life, breastfeeding on demand, not feeding anything by bottle, and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months.Results: The biggest gaps were found to be in putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth (76% gap), feeding colostrum and not giving other fluids, foods or substances within the first three days (54% gap), and exclusive breastfeeding from birth through 180 days (90% gap). Lack of knowledge about dangers of delaying initiation beyond the first hour and giving other fluids, foods or substances, and the common perception of "insufficient milk" were main reasons given by mothers for these practices. Health workers had talked to only 8% of mothers about infant feeding during antenatal and immunization visits, and to 34% of mothers during sick child visits. The major providers of infant feeding information were grandmothers (28%).Conclusions: The findings showed that huge gaps continue to exist in breastfeeding behaviors, mostly due to lack of awareness as to why the recommended breastfeeding practices are beneficial, the risks of not practicing them, as well as how to practice them. Health workers' interactions for promoting and supporting optimal breastfeeding are extremely low. Counseling techniques should be used to reinforce specific, priority messages by health facility staff and community-based workers at all contact points with mothers of young infants. © 2010 Haider et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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