Guo C.F.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology |
Guo C.F.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Zhang J.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology |
Zhang J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
We present a new class of simple, cheap and stable grayscale photomasks based on the metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMO) systems by laser direct writing in metal films. For obtaining high resolution and grainless grayscale patterns we developed a refinement method of the films, in which the nanometer size effect may play a significant role for the improvement. We propose a layered oxidation model and a grain model for the mechanism of In- and Sn-based MTMO systems. The masks have a wide application wavelength range at least from 350 to 700 nm. Threedimensional microstructures have been successfully fabricated by using the MTMO grayscale masks. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source
He K.,Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies |
He K.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular |
Shi X.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular |
Zhang X.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular |
And 8 more authors.
Aims Intercellular interactions between cardiomyocytes (CMs) and cardiofibroblasts (FBs) are important in the physiological and pathophysiological heart. Understanding such interactions is important for developing effective heart disease therapies. However, until recently, little has been known about these interactions. We aimed to investigate structural and functional connections between CMs and FBs that are distinct from gap junctions. Methods and resultsBy membrane dye staining, we observed long, thin membrane nanotubular structures containing actin and microtubules that connected neonatal rat ventricular CMs and FBs. By single-particle tracking, we observed vehicles moving between CMs and FBs within the membrane nanotubes. By dual colour staining, confocal imaging and flow cytometry, we observed mitochondria exchange between CMs and FBs in a coculture system. By combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy, we observed calcium signal propagation from AFM-stimulated CM (or FB) to unstimulated FB (or CM) via membrane nanotubes. By membrane and cytoskeleton staining, we observed similar nanotubular structures in adult mouse heart tissue, which suggests their physiological relevance. ConclusionsAs a novel type of CM to FB communication, membrane nanotubes observed in vitro and in vivo provide structural and functional connectivity between CMs and FBs over long distances. © 2011 The Author. Source