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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Roska B.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Busskamp V.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Sahel J.A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Sahel J.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Biologie Aujourd'hui

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinal disease leading to blindness, which affects two million people worldwide. Restoring vision in these blind patients was proposed by gene delivery of microbial light-activated ionic channels or pumps "optogenetic proteins" to transform surviving cells into artificial photoreceptors. This therapeutic strategy was validated in blind animal models of RP by recording at the level of the retina and cortex and by behavioural tests. The translational potentials of these optogenetic approaches have been evaluated using in vitro studies on post-mortem human retinal tissues. Here, we review these recent results and discuss the potential clinical applications of the optogenetic therapy for RP patients. © , 2013 Société de Biologie. Source

Arnault E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arnault E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Arnault E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Barrau C.,Essilor | And 28 more authors.

Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim was to define the most toxic wavelengths in the blue-green range on an in vitro model of the disease. Primary cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells were incubated for 6 hours with different A2E concentrations and exposed for 18 hours to 10 nm illumination bands centered from 380 to 520 nm in 10 nm increments. Light irradiances were normalized with respect to the natural sunlight reaching the retina. Six hours after light exposure, cell viability, necrosis and apoptosis were assessed using the Apotox-Glo Triplex™ assay. Retinal pigment epithelium cells incubated with A2E displayed fluorescent bodies within the cytoplasm. Their absorption and emission spectra were similar to those of A2E. Exposure to 10 nm illumination bands induced a loss in cell viability with a dose dependence upon A2E concentrations. Irrespective of A2E concentration, the loss of cell viability was maximal for wavelengths from 415 to 455 nm. Cell viability decrease was correlated to an increase in cell apoptosis indicated by caspase-3/7 activities in the same spectral range. No light-elicited necrosis was measured as compared to control cells maintained in darkness. Our results defined the precise spectrum of light retinal toxicity in physiological irradiance conditions on an in vitro model of age-related macular degeneration. Surprisingly, a narrow bandwidth in blue light generated the greatest phototoxic risk to retinal pigment epithelium cells. This phototoxic spectrum may be advantageously valued in designing selective photoprotection ophthalmic filters, without disrupting essential visual and non-visual functions of the eye. © 2013 Arnault et al. Source

Fort P.E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Fort P.E.,University of Michigan | Darche M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sahel J.-A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Vision

Purpose: Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene in the central nervous system. While studying the impact of its absence on retinal functions, we discovered that mice lacking Dp71 also developed a progressive opacification of the crystalline lens. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed characterization of the cataract formation in Dp71 knockout (KO-Dp71) mice.Methods: Cataract formations in KO-Dp71 mice and wild-type (wt) littermates were assessed in vivo by slit-lamp examination and ex vivo by histological analysis as a function of aging. The expression and cellular localization of the DMD gene products were monitored by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Fiber cell integrity was assessed by analyzing the acting cytoskeleton as well as the expression of aquaporin-0 (AQP0).Results: As expected, a slit-lamp examination revealed that only one of the 20 tested wt animals presented with a mild opacification of the lens and only at the most advanced age. However, a lack of Dp71 was associated with a 40% incidence of cataracts as early as 2 months of age, which progressively increased to full penetrance by 7 months. A subsequent histological analysis revealed an alteration in the structures of the lenses of KO-Dp71 mice that correlated with the severity of the lens opacity. An analysis of the expression of the different dystrophin gene products revealed that Dp71 was the major DMD gene product expressed in the lens, especially in fiber cells. The role of Dp71 in fiber cells was also suggested by the progressive disorganization of the lens fibers, which was observed in the absence of Dp71 and demonstrated by irregular staining of the acting network and the aqueous channel AQP0.Conclusions: While its role in the retina has been well characterized, this study demonstrates for the first time the role played by Dp71 in a different ocular tissue: the crystalline lens. It primarily demonstrates the role that Dp71 plays in the maintenance of the integrity of the secondary lens fibers. © 2014 Molecular Vision. Source

Vacca O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Darche M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Schaffer D.V.,University of California at Berkeley | Flannery J.G.,University of California at Berkeley | And 6 more authors.

Formation and maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is required for proper vision and breaching of this barrier contributes to the pathology in a wide variety of retinal conditions such as retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. Dystrophin Dp71 being a key membrane cytoskeletal protein, expressed mainly in Müller cells, its absence has been related to BRB permeability through delocalization and down-regulation of the AQP4 and Kir4.1 channels. Dp71-null mouse is thus an excellent model to approach the study of retinal pathologies showing blood-retinal barrier permeability. We aimed to investigate the participation of Müller cells in the BRB and in the inner limiting membrane of Dp71-null mice compared with wild-type mice in order to understand how these barriers work in this model of permeable BRB. To this aim, we used an Adeno-associated virus (AAV) variant, ShH10-GFP, engineered to target Müller cells specifically. ShH10 coding GFP was introduced by intravitreal injection and Müller cell transduction was studied in Dp71-null mice in comparison to wild-type animals. We show that Müller cell transduction follows a significantly different pattern in Dp71-null mice indicating changes in viral cell-surface receptors as well as differences in the permeability of the inner limiting membrane in this mouse line. However, the compromised BRB of the Dp71-null mice does not lead to virus leakage into the bloodstream when the virus is injected intravitreally - an important consideration for AAV-mediated retinal gene therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

El Mathari B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Charles-Messance H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vacca O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guillonneau X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics

We have previously shown that the deletion of the dystrophin Dp71 gene induces a highly permeable blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Given that BRB breakdown is involved in retinal inflammation and the pathophysiology of many blinding eye diseases, here we investigated whether the absence of Dp71 brings out retinal vascular inflammation and vessel loss by using specific Dp71-null mice. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, was higher in the retina of Dp71-null mice than in wild-type mice. In contrast, no differences were observed in VEGFR-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Moreover, mRNA expression of water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was increased after Dp71 deletion. The Dp71 deletion was also associated with the overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, which is expressed on endothelial cells surface to recruit leukocytes. Consistent with these findings, the total number of adherent leukocytes per retina, assessed after perfusion with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated concanavalin A, was increased in the absence of Dp71. Finally, a significant increase in capillary degeneration quantified after retinal trypsin digestion was observed in mice lacking Dp71. These data illustrate for the first time that the deletion of Dp71 was associated with retinal vascular inflammation, vascular lesions with increased leukocyte adhesion and capillary degeneration. Thus, dystrophin Dp71 could play a critical role in retinal vascular inflammation disease, and therefore represent a potential therapeutic target. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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