Academic Urology Unit

Sheffield, United Kingdom

Academic Urology Unit

Sheffield, United Kingdom
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Olmos D.,The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | Olmos D.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Olmos D.,Clinical Research Programme | Brewer D.,The Institute of Cancer Research | And 23 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Biomarkers are urgently needed to dissect the heterogeneity of prostate cancer between patients to improve treatment and accelerate drug development. We analysed blood mRNA expression arrays to identify patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with poorer outcome. Methods: Whole blood was collected into PAXgene tubes from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and patients with prostate cancer selected for active surveillance. In stage I (derivation set), patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used as cases and patients under active surveillance were used as controls. These patients were recruited from The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Sutton, UK) and The Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre (Glasgow, UK). In stage II (validation-set), patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer recruited from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, USA) were assessed. Whole-blood RNA was hybridised to Affymetrix U133plus2 microarrays. Expression profiles were analysed with Bayesian latent process decomposition (LPD) to identify RNA expression profiles associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer subgroups; these profiles were then confirmed by quantative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR studies and correlated with overall survival in both the test-set and validation-set. Findings: LPD analyses of the mRNA expression data divided the evaluable patients in stage I (n=94) into four groups. All patients in LPD1 (14 of 14) and most in LPD2 (17 of 18) had castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and those under active surveillance comprised LPD3 (15 of 31 castration-resistant prostate cancer) and LDP4 (12 of 21 castration-resistant prostate cancer). Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer in the LPD1 subgroup had features associated with worse prognosis and poorer overall survival than patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer in other LPD subgroups (LPD1 overall survival 10·7 months [95% CI 4·1-17·2] vs non-LPD1 25·6 months [18·0-33·4]; p<0·0001). A nine-gene signature verified by qRT-PCR classified patients into this LPD1 subgroup with a very low percentage of misclassification (1·2%). The ten patients who were initially unclassifiable by the LPD analyses were subclassified by this signature. We confirmed the prognostic utility of this nine-gene signature in the validation castration-resistant prostate cancer cohort, where LPD1 membership was also associated with worse overall survival (LPD1 9·2 months [95% CI 2·1-16·4] vs non-LPD1 21·6 months [7·5-35·6]; p=0·001), and remained an independent prognostic factor in multivariable analyses for both cohorts. Interpretation: Our results suggest that whole-blood gene profiling could identify gene-expression signatures that stratify patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer into distinct prognostic groups. Funding: AstraZeneca, Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Prostate Cancer Charity, Prostate Cancer Foundation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cuzick J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Thorat M.A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Andriole G.,University of Washington | Brawley O.W.,Office of the Chief Medical Officer | And 30 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Heidenreich A.,RWTH Aachen | Abrahamsson P.-A.,Lund University | Artibani W.,University of Verona | Catto J.,Academic Urology Unit | And 4 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Background The recommendations and the updated EAU guidelines consider early detection of PCa with the purpose of reducing PCa-related mortality and the development of advanced or metastatic disease. Objective This paper presents the recommendations of the European Association of Urology (EAU) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men without evidence of PCa-related symptoms. Evidence acquisition The working panel conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective clinical studies on baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and early detection of PCa and on PCa screening published between 1990 and 2013 using Cochrane Reviews, Embase, and Medline search strategies. Evidence synthesis The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were analysed according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The current strategy of the EAU recommends that (1) early detection of PCa reduces PCa-related mortality; (2) early detection of PCa reduces the risk of being diagnosed and developing advanced and metastatic PCa; (3) a baseline serum PSA level should be obtained at 40-45 yr of age; (4) intervals for early detection of PCa should be adapted to the baseline PSA serum concentration; (5) early detection should be offered to men with a life expectancy ≥10 yr; and (6) in the future, multivariable clinical risk-prediction tools need to be integrated into the decision-making process. Conclusions A baseline serum PSA should be offered to all men 40-45 yr of age to initiate a risk-adapted follow-up approach with the purpose of reducing PCa mortality and the incidence of advanced and metastatic PCa. In the future, the development and application of multivariable risk-prediction tools will be necessary to prevent over diagnosis and over treatment. © 2013 European Association of Urology.

Haynes L.,Trudeau Institute | Parker C.,Academic Urology Unit | Iversen P.,Copenhagen University
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Sipuleucel-T was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on April 29, 2010, as an immunotherapy for late-stage prostate cancer. To manufacture sipuleucel-T, mononuclear cells harvested from the patient are incubated with a recombinant prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen and reinfused. The manufacturer proposes that antigen-presenting cells exogenously activated by PAP induce endogenous T-cells to attack PAP-bearing prostate cancer cells. However, the lack of demonstrable tumor responses has prompted calls for scrutiny of the design of the trials in which sipuleucel-T demonstrated a 4-month survival benefit. Previously unpublished data from the sipuleucel-T trials show worse overall survival in older vs younger patients in the placebo groups, which have not been shown previously to be prognostic for survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Because two-thirds of the cells harvested from placebo patients, but not from the sipuleucel-T arm, were frozen and not reinfused a detrimental effect of this large repeated cell loss provides a potential alternative explanation for the survival "benefit." Patient safety depends on adequately addressing this alternative explanation for the trial results. © 2012 The Author (s). Published by Oxford University Press.

Brady D.,Queen's University of Belfast | Parker C.C.,Academic Urology Unit | O'Sullivan J.M.,Queen's University of Belfast
Cancer Journal (United States) | Year: 2013

Bone-seeking radionuclides including samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate and strontium-89 have been used for decades in the palliation of pain from bone metastases especially from prostate cancer. Emerging evidence of improved survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with the first-in-class α-radionuclide, radium-223 (Ra) has rekindled interest in the role of bone-seeking radionuclide therapy.We review the literature for randomized controlled trials of bone-seeking radionuclides and explore some of the issues regarding the optimal use of these agents. In particular, we discuss dose, dose rate, radiobiology, and quality of radiation and postulate on potential future directions in particular combination schedules. β-Emitting, bone-seeking radionuclides have proven ability to control pain in prostate cancer metastatic to bone with pain response rates in the order of 60% to 70% when used as single agents. Most of the published trials were underpowered to detect differences in survival; however, there is evidence of the potential for disease modification when these agents are used in combination with chemotherapy or in multiple cycles.Data from the recent phase III ALSYMPCA trial that compared Ra to placebo in symptomatic CRPC demonstrate a significant improvement in median overall survival of 3.6 months for patients with symptomatic CRPC metastatic to bone treated with 6 cycles of the α-emitting radionuclide Ra compared with placebo. The success of Ra in improving survival in CRPC will lead this agent to become part of the treatment paradigm for this disease, and with such an excellent safety profile, Ra has huge potential in combination strategies as well as for use earlier in the natural history of metastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Attard G.,Institute of Cancer Research | Attard G.,Prostate Cancer Targeted Therapy Group | Parker C.,Academic Urology Unit | Eeles R.A.,Clinical Academic Cancer Genetics Unit | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Lalondrelle S.,Academic Urology Unit | Huddart R.,Academic Urology Unit | Warren-Oseni K.,Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | Hansen V.N.,Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: To examine patterns of bladder wall motion during high-dose hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy and to validate a novel adaptive planning method, A-POLO, to prevent subsequent geographic miss. Methods and Materials: Patterns of individual bladder filling were obtained with repeat computed tomography planning scans at 0, 15, and 30 minutes after voiding. A series of patient-specific plans corresponding to these time-displacement points was created. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography was performed before each fraction and assessed retrospectively for adaptive intervention. In fractions that would have required intervention, the most appropriate plan was chosen from the patients "library," and the resulting target coverage was reassessed with repeat cone-beam computed tomography. Results: A large variation in patterns of bladder filling and interfraction displacement was seen. During radiotherapy, predominant translations occurred cranially (maximum 2.5 cm) and anteriorly (maximum 1.75 cm). No apparent explanation was found for this variation using pretreatment patient factors. A need for adaptive planning was demonstrated by 51% of fractions, and 73% of fractions would have been delivered correctly using A-POLO. The adaptive strategy improved target coverage and was able to account for intrafraction motion also. Conclusions: Bladder volume variation will result in geographic miss in a high proportion of delivered bladder radiotherapy treatments. The A-POLO strategy can be used to correct for this and can be implemented from the first fraction of radiotherapy; thus, it is particularly suited to hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy regimens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Ferraldeschi R.,Institute of Cancer Research | Nava Rodrigues D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Riisnaes R.,Institute of Cancer Research | Miranda S.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 20 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2015

Background Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) occurs frequently in prostate cancers. Preclinical evidence suggests that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling through loss of PTEN can result in resistance to hormonal treatment in prostate cancer. Objective To explore the antitumor activity of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with and without loss of PTEN protein expression. Design, setting, and participants We retrospectively identified patients who had received abiraterone and had hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and/or CRPC tissue available for PTEN immunohistochemical analysis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary end point was overall survival from initiation of abiraterone treatment. Relationship with outcome was analyzed using multivariate Cox regression and log-rank analyses. Results and limitations A total of 144 patients were identified who had received abiraterone post-docetaxel and had available tumor tissue. Overall, loss of PTEN expression was observed in 40% of patients. Matched HSPC and CRPC tumor biopsies were available for 41 patients. PTEN status in CRPC correlated with HSPC in 86% of cases. Loss of PTEN expression was associated with shorter median overall survival (14 vs 21 mo; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.55; p = 0.004) and shorter median duration of abiraterone treatment (24 vs 28 wk; HR: 1.6; 95% CI, 1.12-2.28; p = 0.009). PTEN protein loss, high lactate dehydrogenase, and the presence of visceral metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results indicate that loss of PTEN expression was associated with worse survival and shorter time on abiraterone treatment. Further studies in larger and prospective cohorts are warranted. Patient summary PTEN is a protein often lost in prostate cancer cells. In this study we evaluated if prostate cancers that lack this protein respond differently to treatment with abiraterone acetate. We demonstrated that the survival of patients with loss of PTEN is shorter than patients with normal PTEN expression. © 2014 European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.

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