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Waylen A.L.,University of Sheffield | Jones G.L.,Health Services Research Section | Ledger W.L.,Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2010

There is continuing debate concerning the relationship between cigarette smoking and premature ovarian failure. The aim of this retrospective data analysis was to investigate whether smoking has a measurable effect on early follicular serum concentrations of inhibin B hormone, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in women of reproductive age. A database containing data on age, smoking status and serum concentrations of inhibin B, FSH and AMH was analysed. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the correlation between hormone concentrations and age. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine any significant difference in age between smoking categories and a univariate general linear model was used to compare geometric means and geometric mean ratios of hormone concentrations in relation to smoking status. Serum concentrations of inhibin B were significantly lower in women who had ever smoked cigarettes: F(2,332) = 3.371, P = 0.036. There was no statistically significant difference in FSH or AMH concentrations although a trend towards lower AMH concentrations in smokers was observed. This analysis provides evidence of an advancement of ovarian ageing in women who smoke cigarettes and is relevant to women of childbearing age who wish to avoid premature decline in fertility. © 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Whitby E.,Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine | Wright P.,Medical Imaging and Medical Physics
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2015

Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently offered in a limited number of centers but is predominantly used for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormalities. This article concentrates on the role of the different imaging sequences and their value to clinical practice. It also discusses the future of fetal MRI. © 2015. Source


Pacey A.A.,Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

The assessment of male infertility is largely based around the examination of a freshly produced ejaculate by a trained technician according to laboratory methods agreed by the World Health Organization. Although many suggestions have been made to improve this approach, the basic techniques of semen analysis established in the 1950s are still being used. Although several putative tests of sperm function have been developed (e.g. the measurement of sperm hyperactivation, sperm acrosomal status, or sperm penetration through mucus or binding to zona pellucida), none have made it into routine clinical practice. Recently, several 'new' tests of sperm function and sperm selection have been developed. These include the use of microfluidic chambers, electrophoresis, the binding of sperm to hyaluronic acid, and high magnification sperm selection. Randomised-controlled trials are needed to evaluate these as a replacement or addition to routine semen analysis or current sperm preparation methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mossman J.A.,University of Sheffield | Mossman J.A.,Brown University | Slate J.,University of Sheffield | Birkhead T.R.,University of Sheffield | And 2 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Background Sperm motility is regulated by mitochondrial enzymes that are partially encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). MtDNA has therefore been suggested as a putative genetic marker of male fertility. However, recent studies in different populations have identified both significant and non-significant associations between mtDNA variation and sperm motility. Here, we tested whether mtDNA variation was associated with sperm motility in a large cohort of men from the UK, to test the robustness of previous studies and the reliability of mtDNA as a marker of poor sperm motility.Methods A total of 463 men attending for semen analysis as part of infertility investigations were recruited from a UK laboratory. Sperm motility was measured using both computer-assisted sperm analysis and traditional manual measurements. MtDNA haplogroup and haplotype were determined in 357 and 298 men, respectively, using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers throughout the mtDNA genome, and compared with sperm motility data. The linkage between the SNP markers, and possible associations between individual SNPs and motility, were also investigated. Results We found no statistical association between haplogroup or haplotype and sperm motility, regardless of how it was measured (P > 0.05 in all cases). Moreover, individual SNPs which were in linkage disequilibrium and dispersed across the mitochondrial genome, and therefore sensitive to mtDNA variation, were not predictive of sperm motility. Conclusions Mitochondrial haplotype is unlikely to be a reliable genetic marker of male factor infertility. © 2012 The Author. Source


Holt W.V.,Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine | Fazeli A.,Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Research over the past 3 decades has caused a major shift in the way that the oviduct, or fallopian tube, is perceived. Previously, it was regarded as little more than the anatomic site for fertilization, where spermatozoa and oocytes meet as they travel in opposite directions. However, this view has been radically altered by the realization that both spermatozoa and oocytes elicit changes in the biochemical composition of oviductal fluid through the induction of novel gene expression. Moreover, it has also been shown that only a privileged sperm population, selected on the basis of multiple criteria, is permitted to enter the oviduct, where they are subjected to even more selection processes that control their motility and capacitation status, thus either inhibiting or facilitating their progress toward the oocyte. Even more recently, it has become apparent that the oviduct has some ability to differentiate the genetic signatures of X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa. Although how exactly this is achieved is unknown, it prompts us to speculate that the oviduct may also be capable of distinguishing other genetically encoded properties of individual spermatozoa and that there must ultimately be a huge payoff in terms of selective animal breeding. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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