Sultana R.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Abdel-Fatah T.,University of Nottingham |
Albarakati N.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Seedhouse C.,University of Nottingham |
And 4 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013
XRCC1 is a key component of DNA base excision repair, single strand break repair, and backup nonhomologous end-joining pathway. XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1) deficiency promotes genomic instability, increases cancer risk, and may have clinical application in breast cancer. We investigated XRCC1 expression in early breast cancers (n = 1,297) and validated in an independent cohort of estrogen receptor (ER)-α-negative breast cancers (n = 281). Preclinically, we evaluated XRCC1-deficient and -proficient Chinese hamster and human cancer cells for synthetic lethality application using double-strand break (DSB) repair inhibitors [KU55933 (ataxia telangectasia-mutated; ATM inhibitor) and NU7441 (DNAPKcs inhibitor)]. In breast cancer, loss of XRCC1 (16%) was associated with high grade (P < 0.0001), loss of hormone receptors (P < 0.0001), triple-negative (P < 0.0001), and basal-like phenotypes (P = 0.001). Loss of XRCC1 was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of death (P < 0.0001) and independently with poor outcome (P < 0.0001). Preclinically, KU55933 [2-(4-Morpholinyl)-6-(1-thianthrenyl)-4H- pyran-4-one] and NU7441 [8-(4-Dibenzothienyl)-2-(4-morpholinyl)-4H-1-benzopyran- 4-one] were synthetically lethal in XRCC1-deficient compared with proficient cells as evidenced by hypersensitivity to DSB repair inhibitors, accumulation of DNA DSBs, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. This is the first study to show that XRCC1 deficiency in breast cancer results in an aggressive phenotype and that XRCC1 deficiency could also be exploited for a novel synthetic lethality application using DSB repair inhibitors. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.
Sudhakar J.,Vision Research Foundation |
Sudhakar J.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science |
Khetan V.,Medical Research Foundation |
Madhusudan S.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Krishnakumar S.,Vision Research Foundation
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014
Background: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood eye tumour. Dysregulation of DNA repair may not only influence pathogenesis but could also adversely impact on response to cytotoxic chemotherapy frequently used in RB therapy. We studied the expression of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), a key multifunctional protein involved in DNA base excision repair in RB. Methods: Expression of APE1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 55 RBs and in retina. In tumours, APE1 expression was analysed in cytoplasm and nucleus independently and correlated with histopathological features, including invasion, differentiation and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification groups. Relative APE1 mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by realtime PCR and western blot. The expression of APE1 in tumour groups was compared with retinal tissue. Results: APE1 cytoplasmic expression was observed in 98% and nuclear positivity was observed in 83% of tumours analysed. Tumour cells invading the optic nerve showed predominant cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. An inverse correlation between cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity was observed. Real-time PCR revealed an increase in APE1 transcripts compared with retina. Western blot revealed a decreased protein concentration compared with retinal tissue. Conclusions: This is the first study of APE1 expression in RB. Our observation suggests that subcellular localisation of APE1 is altered in RB. APE1 could be a potential drug target in RB.
Fareed K.R.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Al-Attar A.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Soomro I.N.,University of Nottingham |
Kaye P.V.,University of Nottingham |
And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010
Aims:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Previously, we validated the utility of the tumour regression grade (TRG) as a histopathological marker of tumour downstaging in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this study we profiled key DNA repair and damage signalling factors and correlated them with clinicopathological outcomes, including TRG response.Methods and results:Formalin-fixed human gastro-oesophageal cancers were constructed into tissue microarrays (TMAs). The first set consisted of 142 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases not exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the second set consisted of 103 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases exposed to preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. Expressions of ERCC1, XPF, FANCD2, APE1 and p53 were investigated using immunohistochemistry.In patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, favourable TRG response (TRG 1, 2 or 3) was associated with improvement in disease-specific survival (P0.038). ERCC1 nuclear expression correlated with lack of histopathological response (TRG 4 or 5) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P0.006) and was associated with poor disease-specific (P0.020) and overall survival (P0.040).Conclusions:We provide evidence that tumour regression and ERCC1 nuclear protein expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry are promising predictive markers in gastro-oesophageal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.
Mohammed M.Z.,Academic Unit of Oncology |
Vyjayanti V.N.,National Institute on Ageing |
Laughton C.A.,University of Nottingham |
Dekker L.V.,University of Nottingham |
And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011
Aims:Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer. In the current study, we aimed to develop small molecule inhibitors of APE1 for cancer therapy.Methods:An industry-standard high throughput virtual screening strategy was adopted. The Sybyl8.0 (Tripos, St Louis, MO, USA) molecular modelling software suite was used to build inhibitor templates. Similarity searching strategies were then applied using ROCS 2.3 (Open Eye Scientific, Santa Fe, NM, USA) to extract pharmacophorically related subsets of compounds from a chemically diverse database of 2.6 million compounds. The compounds in these subsets were subjected to docking against the active site of the APE1 model, using the genetic algorithm-based programme GOLD2.7 (CCDC, Cambridge, UK). Predicted ligand poses were ranked on the basis of several scoring functions. The top virtual hits with promising pharmaceutical properties underwent detailed in vitro analyses using fluorescence-based APE1 cleavage assays and counter screened using endonuclease IV cleavage assays, fluorescence quenching assays and radiolabelled oligonucleotide assays. Biochemical APE1 inhibitors were then subjected to detailed cytotoxicity analyses.Results:Several specific APE1 inhibitors were isolated by this approach. The IC 50 for APE1 inhibition ranged between 30 nM and 50 M. We demonstrated that APE1 inhibitors lead to accumulation of AP sites in genomic DNA and potentiated the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in melanoma and glioma cell lines.Conclusions:Our study provides evidence that APE1 is an emerging drug target and could have therapeutic application in patients with melanoma and glioma. © 2011 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.