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Sheffield, United Kingdom

Thayyil S.,University College London | Sebire N.J.,University College London | Chitty L.S.,University College London | Wade A.,University College London | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Summary Background Post-mortem MRI is a potential diagnostic alternative to conventional autopsy, but few large prospective studies have compared its accuracy with that of conventional autopsy. We assessed the accuracy of whole-body, post-mortem MRI for detection of major pathological lesions associated with death in a prospective cohort of fetuses and children. Methods In this prospective validation study, we did pre-autopsy, post-mortem, whole-body MRI at 1·5 T in an unselected population of fetuses (≤24 weeks' or >24 weeks' gestation) and children (aged <16 years) at two UK centres in London between March 1, 2007 and Sept 30, 2011. With conventional autopsy as the diagnostic gold standard, we assessed MRI findings alone, or in conjunction with other minimally invasive post-mortem investigations (minimally invasive autopsy), for accuracy in detection of cause of death or major pathological abnormalities. A radiologist and pathologist who were masked to the autopsy findings indicated whether the minimally invasive autopsy would have been adequate. The primary outcome was concordance rate between minimally invasive and conventional autopsy. Findings We analysed 400 cases, of which 277 (69%) were fetuses and 123 (31%) were children. Cause of death or major pathological lesion detected by minimally invasive autopsy was concordant with conventional autopsy in 357 (89·3%, 95% CI 85·8-91·9) cases: 175 (94·6%, 90·3-97·0) of 185 fetuses at 24 weeks' gestation or less, 88 (95·7%, 89·3-98·3) of 92 fetuses at more than 24 weeks' gestation, 34 (81·0%, 67·7-90·0) of 42 newborns aged 1 month or younger, 45 (84·9%, 72·9-92·1) of 53 infants aged older than 1 month to 1 year or younger, and 15 (53·6%, 35·8-70·5) of 28 children aged older than 1 year to 16 years or younger. The dedicated radiologist or pathologist review of the minimally invasive autopsy showed that in 165 (41%) cases a full autopsy might not have been needed; in these cases, concordance between autopsy and minimally invasive autopsy was 99·4% (96·6-99·9). Interpretation Minimally invasive autopsy has accuracy similar to that of conventional autopsy for detection of cause of death or major pathological abnormality after death in fetuses, newborns, and infants, but was less accurate in older children. If undertaken jointly by pathologists and radiologists, minimally invasive autopsy could be an acceptable alternative to conventional autopsy in selected cases. Funding Policy research Programme, Department of Health, UK. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fewtrell M.S.,University College London | Edmonds C.J.,University of East London | Isaacs E.,University College London | Bishop N.J.,Academic Unit of Child Health | Lucas A.,University College London
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2011

Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem. © 2011 The Authors.

Calder A.D.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust | Offiah A.C.,Academic Unit of Child Health
Pediatric Radiology | Year: 2014

Despite advances in antenatal imaging and genetic techniques, post-delivery post-mortem foetal radiography remains the key investigation in accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia manifesting in the foetus. Foetal radiography is best performed using pathology-specimen radiography equipment and is often carried out in the pathology department without involvement of the radiology unit. However, paediatric radiologists may be asked to interpret post-mortem foetal radiographs when an abnormality is suspected. Many foetal radiographs are carried out before 20 weeks' gestation, and the interpreting radiologist needs to be familiar with the range of normal post-mortem foetal appearances at different gestational ages, as well as the appearances of some of the more commonly presenting skeletal dysplasias, and will benefit from a systematic approach when assessing more challenging cases. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate various normal post-mortem foetal radiographic appearances, give examples of commonly occurring skeletal dysplasias, and describe an approach to establishing more difficult diagnoses. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Elder C.J.E.,Academic Unit of Child Health | Natarajan A.,Royal Infirmary
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

We report two cases of adolescent females with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who were found to have gross hepatomegaly on annual review. With the additional findings of short stature (in one case), delayed puberty and a Cushingoid habitus they were diagnosed with Mauriac syndrome. Within our diabetes service we have incorporated regular abdominal examinations for all children and young people with long standing, poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c persistently >9.5%). A brief review of the literature is included. © Freund Publishing House Ltd.

Offiah A.C.,Academic Unit of Child Health
Pediatric Radiology | Year: 2014

Background: Paediatric non-accidental injury is a considerable health problem, and imaging plays a fundamental role in its assessment. Since the introduction of joint guidelines published by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) in 2008, there has been a concerted effort to adopt a consensus approach to imaging in this area in the United Kingdom.Objective: This study aims to establish current practice amongst European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) members within their institutions with regards to the use of imaging in suspected non-accidental injury.Materials and methods: A web-based survey was created and circulated to all active ESPR members. The responses were collated and analysed.Results: We received 134 responses, accounting for 37% of the current membership across 24 European countries. These responses highlighted significant variation amongst institutions, with no consensus regarding radiographic and cross-sectional imaging in the investigation of suspected non-accidental injury.Conclusion: There is a need for a European consensus protocol to imaging in suspected non-accidental injury. We recommend implementing the joint RCR/RCPCH guidance, a move supported by the ESPR. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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