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Kanis J.A.,University of Sheffield | McCloskey E.,University of Sheffield | McCloskey E.,Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism | Johansson H.,University of Sheffield | And 4 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2012

The use of FRAX, particularly in the absence of BMD, has been the subject of some debate and is the focus of this review. The clinical risk factors used in FRAX have high validity as judged from an evidence-based assessment and identify a risk that is responsive to pharmaceutical intervention. Moreover, treatment effects, with the possible exception of alendronate, are not dependent on baseline BMD and strongly suggest that FRAX identifies high-risk patients who respond to pharmaceutical interventions. In addition, the selection of high-risk individuals with FRAX, without knowledge of BMD, preferentially selects for low BMD. The prediction of fractures with the use of clinical risk factors alone in FRAX is comparable to the use of BMD alone to predict fractures and is suitable, therefore, in the many countries where DXA facilities are sparse. In countries where access to BMD is greater, FRAX can be used without BMD in the majority of cases and BMD tests reserved for those close to a probability-based intervention threshold. Whereas the efficacy for agents to reduce fracture risk has not been tested prospectively in randomized controlled trials in patients selected on the basis of FRAX probabilities, there is compelling evidence that FRAX with or without the use of BMD provides a well-validated instrument for targeting patients most likely to benefit from an intervention. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Paggiosi M.A.,University of Sheffield | Peel N.,Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism | McCloskey E.,University of Sheffield | Walsh J.S.,University of Sheffield | Eastell R.,University of Sheffield
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2014

Summary: We compared the effects of oral alendronate, ibandronate and risedronate on the central and peripheral skeleton over 2 years. We report differences in effect on the central skeleton but not on the peripheral skeleton. Greater effects were observed for ibandronate (and alendronate) than risedronate at the spine but not the hip.Introduction: Generally, comparative clinical trials of bisphosphonates have examined changes in bone within central skeletal regions. We have examined the effects of bisphosphonate treatment on the peripheral skeleton.Methods: We conducted a 2-year, open-label, parallel randomised control trial of three orally administered bisphosphonates, at their licensed dose, to examine and compare their effects on the peripheral skeleton using multiple modes of measurement. We studied 172 postmenopausal women (53–84 years) who had either a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of ≤ −2.5 at the spine and/or total hip or < −1.0 at either site plus a previous low trauma fracture. Participants were randomised to receive either (i) ibandronate 150 mg/month, (ii) alendronate 70 mg/week or (iii) risedronate 35 mg/week, plus calcium (1,200 mg/day) and vitamin D (800 IU/day), for 2 years. Premenopausal women (33–40 years, n = 226) were studied to monitor device stability.Results: We measured central BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, total body and forearm using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We measured calcaneus BMD (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry plus laser), radius and tibia BMD (using peripheral quantitative computed tomography), finger BMD (using radiographic absorptiometry), and phalangeal and calcaneal ultrasound variables (using quantitative ultrasound). Mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate effects of time and treatment allocation on BMD change. By 2 years, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in central BMD sites (lumbar spine, total hip). In the peripheral skeleton, only significant changes in calcaneus BMD, 33 % total radius BMD and quantitative ultrasound (QUS)-2 broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were evident for women receiving oral bisphosphonates.Conclusions: The increases in lumbar spine and total body BMD were greater with ibandronate and alendronate than with risedronate. Treatment effects on peripheral measurements did not differ between the three bisphosphonates. © 2014, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source


Finigan J.,University of Sheffield | Finigan J.,Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism | Naylor K.,University of Sheffield | Paggiosi M.A.,University of Sheffield | And 2 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response. Introduction: Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring. Methods: Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study. Results: The two methods correlated significantly (p <0.001, Spearman's rho = 0.73) but the tablet count showed a higher median adherence than the MEMS caps (95.7 vs. 85.0 %, p <0.001), with greater divergence at lower adherence levels. MEMS adherence in 65 subjects with complete data correlated with NTX response (p <0.01, rho = -0.33) but with BMD response only at the femoral neck. However, adherence in the lowest quartile was associated with poorer BMD response at all sites (p <0.05). Conclusion: Tablet counts may give similar results overall but conceal substantial individual non-adherence. Monitoring caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source


Alonso N.,University of Edinburgh | Soares D.C.,University of Edinburgh | V McCloskey E.,Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism | Summers G.D.,Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2015

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG) is a rare autosomal recessive condition of congenital blindness and severe childhood osteoporosis with skeletal fragility, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. We report the first case of atypical (subtrochanteric) femoral fracture (AFF) in OPPG, occurring in a 38-year-old man within the context of relatively low bone turnover and trabecular osteoporosis on bone histology. We identify two novel LRP5 mutations: R752W is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), as demonstrated by the heterozygous carriage identified in his 57-year-old mother; however, the combination of this R752W mutation with another novel W79R mutation, causes a severe case of compound heterozygous OPPG. We undertake 3D homology modeling of the four extracellular YWTD β-propeller/EGF-like domains (E1-E4) of LRP5, and show that both novel mutations destabilize the β-propeller domains that are critical for protein and ligand binding to regulate Wnt signaling and osteoblast function. Although AFFs have been reported in other rare bone diseases, this is the first in a genetic condition of primary osteoblast dysfunction. The relatively low bone turnover observed, and knowledge of LRP5 function, implicates impaired bone remodeling in the pathogenesis of AFF. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Source


Salam S.N.,Sheffield Kidney Institute | Eastell R.,Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism | Khwaja A.,Sheffield Kidney Institute
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2014

Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density, while CKD results in qualitative changes in bone structure; both conditions increase the predisposition to fragility fractures. There is a significant coprevalence of osteoporotic fractures and CKD, particularly in the elderly population. Not only is the risk of fracture higher in the CKD population, but clinical outcomes are significantly worse, with substantial health care costs. Management of osteoporosis in the CKD population is particularly complex given the impact of renal osteodystrophy on bone quality and the limited safety and hard outcome data for current therapy in patients with severe CKD or on dialysis therapy. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, the impact of CKD on bone strength, and the role of novel imaging techniques and biomarkers in predicting underlying renal osteodystrophy on bone histomorphometry in the context of CKD. Source

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