Academic Surgery Breast Unit

London, United Kingdom

Academic Surgery Breast Unit

London, United Kingdom
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Twelves D.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Twelves D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Nerurkar A.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | Osin P.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | And 3 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

The concept of an intraductal approach to evaluate the breast microenvironment assumes direct access to the cancer-containing duct. Central duct access to the cancer-affected lobe is essential if cytology or cell markers are to be useful indicators of pre-malignant change. Access to the cancer-bearing lobe would be less important if field change effects of malignant change were predominantly supra-lobar. The aim of this study was to determine how often duct lavage fluid drains the breast cancer-affected segment. 58 patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer were recruited among which 47 had at least one fluid-yielding duct. Following duct lavage, fluid-yielding ducts were perfused ex vivo with Polyurethane Elastomer (PU4ii) resin. Specimens were sliced sagittally, and the extent of resin perfusion and anatomical relationship to the cancer-affected segment was recorded. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed on selected mastectomies before cut-up for a feasibility study of 3D duct reconstruction. The median number of fluid-yielding ducts cannulated per cancer-affected breast was 2 (range 1-4). 35/47 (74%) mastectomy specimens were successfully cannulated for resin perfusion. 29/35 (83%) showed tracing of the cancer-affected duct system, 6/35 resin perfusions traced duct systems unaffected by cancer and 12/35 perfusions extravasated. The proportion of sagittal breast slices perfused by resin was 13-68% (median 43%). Volume rendering CT showed it is feasible to produce a simulated image of the perfused ducts. Duct access to the cancer-containing segment is feasible in the majority of patients. Fluid-yielding ducts proportionately drain a significant volume of the breast. Large symptomatic cancers may cause obstruction with distal collapse. Further quantitative study of breast perfusion CT scans may be helpful for estimating the volume fraction of breast tissue perfused by fluid-yielding ducts. The intraductal approach is a valid concept for biomarker assessment of cancer-containing breast segments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Twelves D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Twelves D.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Nerurkar A.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | Osin P.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

DNA methylation of tumor-suppressor genes occurs early in the molecular transformation of precursor events to breast cancer and is therefore of interest to screening in high-risk women. The aim of this study was to use tumor-suppressor genes that have previously been shown to be cancer predictive in tissue to evaluate the potential of DNA methylation assays in cells from duct lavage (DL) fluid. The frequency of target gene DNA methylation in tissue and DL of cancer and healthy control patients was assessed, and an association of DNA methylation between different duct systems in the same breast was explored. The cancer and control groups were identified in the outpatient clinic when surgical treatment was finalized. Tumor, adjacent tissue and bilateral DL samples for comparative DNA methylation studies were obtained during surgery from women with cancer. In the healthy control group, samples of tissue and DL were collected. Reverse transcriptase methylation-specific PCR was conducted on modified DNA purified from 42 cancer biopsies, 41 benign excision cavity biopsies (internal control), 29 benign biopsies (external control), and 119 DL specimens. A validated panel of cancer predictive genes was analyzed in the study bank of tissue and DL samples from cancer and healthy patients. The sensitivity of DNA methylation in DL samples compared with matched cancer tissue was highest for SCGB3A1 (90 %), CDH13 (91 %), and RARB (83 %). The genetic algorithm selected RASSF1A, RARB, and IGFBP7 as the optimum predictor set for detecting DNA methylation in cancer tissue. The optimum area under the ROC curve for DNA methylation in cancer compared with internal control healthy tissue from excision margins was 0.84. The area under the ROC curve for DNA methylation in cancer DL compared with contralateral benign DL was 0.76. DL cytology was not a helpful predictor of breast cancer. This study shows that relative patterns of tumor-suppressor gene hypermethylation in breast cancer tissue are significantly reflected in the DL from the cancer affected breast. Using DL, nonconcordant patterns of DNA methylation between different duct systems confer independent oncologic potential for distinct breast lobes. The approach of DNA methylation in DL may be substantiated by a larger trial of breast cancer biomarkers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Twelves D.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Twelves D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Nerurkar A.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | Osin P.,Royal Marsden NHS Trust | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Aim: Nipple aspiration (NA) and duct lavage (DL) are modalities for obtaining breast duct fluid for biomarker analyses. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of obtaining serial NA and DL samples at consecutive patient visits for cytology assessment and the creation of a biobank. Methods: Seventy eligible subjects were enroled at a single institution in the United Kingdom as part of an international multicentre study. Entry criteria were based on a 5-year Gail model risk of ≥2% or Claus score lifetime risk of ≥26%. Women underwent NA and DL in an outpatient clinic under local anaesthesia. Results: The mean patient age was 48 (range 41-69) years. Sixty seven out of 70 women (96%) attended three consecutive 6 monthly visits and follow-up for 2 years. Three women withdrew due to intolerance of the DL procedure. 56/67 (83%) women produced NA fluid from at least one duct. 204/264 (77%) of ducts declared by NA were cannulated for DL. 170/204 (83%) produced DL samples with adequate cellularity. By the final visit 52/67 (78%) women produced DL, 28/52 (54%) of whom were premenopausal and 24/52 (46%) were postmenopausal. 50/52 women (96%) underwent repeated DL of 81 ducts on 3 consecutive visits. Conclusion: NA and DL are well tolerated for repeated assessment to obtain material for cytology and to create a biobank for future biomarker studies in women at high breast cancer risk. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Betal D.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | MacNeill F.A.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2011

Introduction. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing group of nontuberculous mycobacteria more common in patients with genetic or acquired causes of immune deficiency. There have been few published reports of Mycobacterium fortuitum associated with breast infections mainly associated with breast implant and reconstructive surgery. Case presentation. We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to our one-stop breast clinic with a two-week history of left breast swelling and tenderness. Following triple assessment and subsequent incision and drainage of a breast abscess, the patient was diagnosed with Mycobacterium fortuitum and treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement. Conclusion: This is a rare case of a spontaneous breast abscess secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. Recommended treatment is long-term antibacterial therapy and surgical debridement for extensive infection or when implants are involved. © 2011 Betal and MacNeill; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tang S.S.K.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Gui G.P.H.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: The challenges of managing breast cancer in women with augmented breasts include screening, diagnosis, oncologic and revisional surgery, and surveillance. In addition, women with augmented breasts frequently have greater expectations of cosmetic outcomes. More breast clinicians will be affected by these challenges as augmentation grows in popularity and women with implants reach the age range in which they are at higher risk of developing breast cancer. In the United States, more than 2 million women have undergone augmentation, making this the second most commonly performed cosmetic procedure.1 With a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of 1 in 8, it is projected that more than 50,000 women who undergo augmentation each year in the United States will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives.2 Methods: This is a review of current practice based on an exhaustive literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and conference proceedings. A series of case studies is presented to illustrate mammographic changes and cosmetic outcomes in augmented breasts that have required treatment for breast cancer. Results: An evidence-based summary of recommendations has been produced to guide breast surgeons in managing this particular group of patients. Conclusions: Management of breast cancer in previously augmented breasts presents a unique range of challenges. Patients can be reassured that the presence of an implant does not increase the risk of breast cancer developing or affect the prognosis if breast cancer does develop. Clinical judgement is made balancing surgical and oncologic principles to provide the best cosmetic outcome. © 2011 Society of Surgical Oncology.


PubMed | Academic Surgery Breast Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of surgical oncology | Year: 2011

The challenges of managing breast cancer in women with augmented breasts include screening, diagnosis, oncologic and revisional surgery, and surveillance. In addition, women with augmented breasts frequently have greater expectations of cosmetic outcomes. More breast clinicians will be affected by these challenges as augmentation grows in popularity and women with implants reach the age range in which they are at higher risk of developing breast cancer. In the United States, more than 2 million women have undergone augmentation, making this the second most commonly performed cosmetic procedure. With a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of 1 in 8, it is projected that more than 50,000 women who undergo augmentation each year in the United States will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives.This is a review of current practice based on an exhaustive literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and conference proceedings. A series of case studies is presented to illustrate mammographic changes and cosmetic outcomes in augmented breasts that have required treatment for breast cancer.An evidence-based summary of recommendations has been produced to guide breast surgeons in managing this particular group of patients.Management of breast cancer in previously augmented breasts presents a unique range of challenges. Patients can be reassured that the presence of an implant does not increase the risk of breast cancer developing or affect the prognosis if breast cancer does develop. Clinical judgement is made balancing surgical and oncologic principles to provide the best cosmetic outcome.


Khan A.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Chakravorty A.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit | Gui G.P.H.,Academic Surgery Breast Unit
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Classical anatomical descriptions fail to describe variants often observed in the axilla as they are based on studies that looked at individual structures in isolation or textbooks of cadaveric dissections. The presence of variant anatomy heightens the risk of iatrogenic injury. The aim of this study was to document the nature and frequency of these anatomical variations based on in vivo peroperative surgical observations. Methods: Detailed anatomical relationships were documented prospectively during consecutive axillary dissections. Relationships between the thoracodorsal pedicle, course of the lateral thoracic vein, presence of latissimus dorsi muscle slips, variations in axillary and angular vein anatomy, and origins and branching of the intercostobrachial nerve were recorded. Results: Among a total of 73 axillary dissections, 43 (59 per cent) revealed at least one anatomical variant. Most notable variants included aberrant courses of the thoracodorsal nerve in ten patients (14 per cent)-three variants; lateral thoracic vein in 12 patients (16 per cent)-four variants; bifid axillary veins in ten patients (14 per cent); latissimus dorsi muscle slips in four patients (5 per cent); and variants in intercostobrachial nerve origins and branching in 26 patients (36 per cent). The angular vein, a subscapular vein tributary, was found to be a constant axillary structure. Conclusion: Variations in axillary anatomical structures are common. Poor understanding of these variants can affect the adequacy of oncological clearance, lead to vascular injury, compromise planned microvascular procedures and result in chronic pain or numbness from nerve injury. Surgeons should be aware of the common anatomical variants to facilitate efficient and safe axillary surgery. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Academic Surgery Breast Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The British journal of surgery | Year: 2012

Classical anatomical descriptions fail to describe variants often observed in the axilla as they are based on studies that looked at individual structures in isolation or textbooks of cadaveric dissections. The presence of variant anatomy heightens the risk of iatrogenic injury. The aim of this study was to document the nature and frequency of these anatomical variations based on in vivo peroperative surgical observations.Detailed anatomical relationships were documented prospectively during consecutive axillary dissections. Relationships between the thoracodorsal pedicle, course of the lateral thoracic vein, presence of latissimus dorsi muscle slips, variations in axillary and angular vein anatomy, and origins and branching of the intercostobrachial nerve were recorded.Among a total of 73 axillary dissections, 43 (59 per cent) revealed at least one anatomical variant. Most notable variants included aberrant courses of the thoracodorsal nerve in ten patients (14 per cent)--three variants; lateral thoracic vein in 12 patients (16 per cent)--four variants; bifid axillary veins in ten patients (14 per cent); latissimus dorsi muscle slips in four patients (5 per cent); and variants in intercostobrachial nerve origins and branching in 26 patients (36 per cent). The angular vein, a subscapular vein tributary, was found to be a constant axillary structure.Variations in axillary anatomical structures are common. Poor understanding of these variants can affect the adequacy of oncological clearance, lead to vascular injury, compromise planned microvascular procedures and result in chronic pain or numbness from nerve injury. Surgeons should be aware of the common anatomical variants to facilitate efficient and safe axillary surgery.


PubMed | Academic Surgery Breast Unit
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2012

Nipple aspiration (NA) and duct lavage (DL) are modalities for obtaining breast duct fluid for biomarker analyses. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of obtaining serial NA and DL samples at consecutive patient visits for cytology assessment and the creation of a biobank.Seventy eligible subjects were enroled at a single institution in the United Kingdom as part of an international multicentre study. Entry criteria were based on a 5-year Gail model risk of 2% or Claus score lifetime risk of 26%. Women underwent NA and DL in an outpatient clinic under local anaesthesia.The mean patient age was 48 (range 41-69)years. Sixty seven out of 70 women (96%) attended three consecutive 6 monthly visits and follow-up for 2 years. Three women withdrew due to intolerance of the DL procedure. 56/67 (83%) women produced NA fluid from at least one duct. 204/264 (77%) of ducts declared by NA were cannulated for DL. 170/204 (83%) produced DL samples with adequate cellularity. By the final visit 52/67 (78%) women produced DL, 28/52 (54%) of whom were premenopausal and 24/52 (46%) were postmenopausal. 50/52 women (96%) underwent repeated DL of 81 ducts on 3 consecutive visits.NA and DL are well tolerated for repeated assessment to obtain material for cytology and to create a biobank for future biomarker studies in women at high breast cancer risk.

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