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Ho K.F.,Academic Radiation Oncology | Marchant T.,North Western Medical Physics | Moore C.,North Western Medical Physics | Webster G.,North Western Medical Physics | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: Parotid-sparing head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce long-term xerostomia. However, patients frequently experience weight loss and tumor shrinkage during treatment. We evaluate the use of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for dose monitoring and examine if the dosimetric impact of such changes on the parotid and critical neural structures warrants replanning during treatment. Methods and materials: Ten patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were treated with contralateral parotid-sparing IMRT concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy. Mean doses of 65 Gy and 54 Gy were delivered to clinical target volume (CTV)1 and CTV2, respectively, in 30 daily fractions. CBCT was prospectively acquired weekly. Each CBCT was coregistered with the planned isocenter. The spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, larynx, and oral cavity were outlined on each CBCT. Dose distributions were recalculated on the CBCT after correcting the gray scale to provide accurate Hounsfield calibration, using the original IMRT plan configuration. Results: Planned contralateral parotid mean doses were not significantly different to those delivered during treatment (p > 0.1). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotids showed a mean reduction in volume of 29.7% and 28.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference between planned and delivered maximum dose to the brainstem (p = 0.6) or spinal cord (p = 0.2), mean dose to larynx (p = 0.5) and oral cavity (p = 0.8). End-of-treatment mean weight loss was 7.5 kg (8.8% of baseline weight). Despite a ≥10% weight loss in 5 patients, there was no significant dosimetric change affecting the contralateral parotid and neural structures. Conclusions: Although patient weight loss and parotid volume shrinkage was observed, overall, there was no significant excess dose to the organs at risk. No replanning was felt necessary for this patient cohort, but a larger patient sample will be investigated to further confirm these results. Nevertheless, kilovoltage CBCT is a valuable tool for patient setup verification and monitoring of dosimetric variation during radiotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gee H.E.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Camps C.,University of Oxford | Buffa F.M.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Patiar S.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is an important mechanism of treatment resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple mRNAs and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. The authors have investigated the role of 3 microRNAs, including the hypoxia-induced hsa-miR-210, as potential markers of hypoxia or prognosis. METHODS: Three hypoxia-related microRNAs, hsa-miR-210, hsa-miR-21, and hsa-miR-10b, were measured in 46 samples from patients with HNSCC. Expression levels were correlated with clinicopathological variables and other markers of hypoxia: a published 99-gene hypoxia metagene, individual hypoxia-related genes such as TWIST1, and immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and its target gene carbonic anhydrase 9. We then performed survival analyses to investigate the prognostic significance of these microRNAs. RESULTS: Only the level of hsa-miR-210 was significantly correlated with other markers of hypoxia, including the 99-gene hypoxia metagene (rho = 0.67, P < .001).We found no association between hsa-miR-210, hsamiR-21, or hsa-miR-10b and clinicopathological variables such as tumor size, differentiation, and stage. However, high levels of hsa-miR-210 were associated with locoregional disease recurrence (P = .001) and short overall survival (P = .008). hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-10b had no prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of hsa-miR-210 in head and neck cancer correlates with other approaches for assessing hypoxia and is associated with prognosis. This warrants further study as a classification marker of patients for therapies involving modulation of hypoxia. © 2010 American Cancer Society. Source


Gee H.E.,University of Oxford | Buffa F.M.,University of Oxford | Camps C.,Oxford Genetics | Ramachandran A.,University of Oxford | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background:To investigate small-nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as reference genes when measuring miRNA expression in tumour samples, given emerging evidence for their role in cancer.Methods:Four snoRNAs, commonly used for normalisation, RNU44, RNU48, RNU43 and RNU6B, and miRNA known to be associated with pathological factors, were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in two patient series: 219 breast cancer and 46 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). SnoRNA and miRNA were then correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis.Results:Small-nucleolar RNA expression was as variable as miRNA expression (miR-21, miR-210, miR-10b). Normalising miRNA PCR expression data to these recommended snoRNAs introduced bias in associations between miRNA and pathology or outcome. Low snoRNA expression correlated with markers of aggressive pathology. Low levels of RNU44 were associated with a poor prognosis. RNU44 is an intronic gene in a cluster of highly conserved snoRNAs in the growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5) transcript, which is normally upregulated to arrest cell growth under stress. Low-tumour GAS5 expression was associated with a poor prognosis. RNU48 and RNU43 were also identified as intronic snoRNAs within genes that are dysregulated in cancer.Conclusion:Small-nucleolar RNAs are important in cancer prognosis, and their use as reference genes can introduce bias when determining miRNA expression. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

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