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Naanyu V.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Wachira J.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Hogan J.W.,Brown University | Hogan J.W.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet HIV | Year: 2015

Background: Few population-based studies exist on the HIV care continuum in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe engagement in care in all adults with an existing diagnosis of HIV and to assess the time to and predictors of linkage and engagement in adults newly diagnosed via home-based counselling and testing (HBCT) in a high-prevalence setting in western Kenya. Methods: Data were derived from AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare), which has provided HIV care in western Kenya since 2001 and the HBCT programme, which has been operating since 2007. After a widespread HBCT programme in Bunyala subcounty from December, 2009, to February, 2011, we reviewed electronic medical records to identify uptake of care in individuals (aged 13 years or older) with previously known (self-reported) infection and new (identified at HBCT) HIV diagnoses as of June 1, 2014. We defined engagement in HIV care as an initial encounter with an HIV care provider. We used Cox regression analysis to examine the predictors of engagement in care for newly diagnosed individuals. Findings: Of the 3482 adults with HIV identified at HBCT, 2122 (61%) had previously been diagnosed with HIV, of whom 1778 (84%) had had at least one clinical encounter within AMPATH. 993 (73%) of the 1360 individuals with new diagnoses at HBCT were registered in the electronic medical records, although only 209 (15%) had seen a clinician over a median of 3·4 years since diagnosis. The median time to engagement in the newly diagnosed individuals was 60 days (IQR 10-411). Interpretation: Creative and innovative strategies are needed to support people to engage with care when they are newly diagnosed with HIV through population-based case-finding initiatives.

Wyatt C.M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Schwartz G.J.,University of Rochester | Owino Ong'or W.,Moi University | Abuya J.,Moi University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:More than two-thirds of the world's HIV-positive individuals live in sub-Saharan Africa, where genetic susceptibility to kidney disease is high and resources for kidney disease screening and antiretroviral therapy (ART) toxicity monitoring are limited. Equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine were derived in Western populations and may be less accurate in this population.Methods:We compared results from published GFR estimating equations with a direct measure of GFR by iohexol clearance in 99 HIV-infected, ART-naïve Kenyan adults. Iohexol concentration was measured from dried blood spots on filter paper. The bias ratio (mean of the ratio of estimated to measured GFR) and accuracy (percentage of estimates within 30% of the measured GFR) were calculated.Results:The median age was 35 years, and 60% were women. The majority had asymptomatic HIV, with median CD4+ cell count of 355 cells/mm3. Median measured GFR was 115 mL/min/1.73 m2. Overall accuracy was highest for the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Consortium (CKD-EPI) equation. Consistent with a prior report, bias and accuracy were improved by eliminating the coefficient for black race (85% of estimates within 30% of measured GFR). Accuracy of all equations was poor in participants with GFR 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (<65% of estimates within 30% of measured GFR), although this subgroup was too small to reach definitive conclusions.Conclusions:Overall accuracy was highest for the CKD-EPI equation. Eliminating the coefficient for race further improved performance. Future studies are needed to determine the most accurate GFR estimate for use in individuals with GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, in whom accurate estimation of kidney function is important to guide drug dosing. Direct measurement of GFR by iohexol clearance using a filter paper based assay is feasible for research purposes in resource-limited settings, and could be used to develop more accurate GFR estimates in African populations. © 2013 Wyatt et al.

PubMed | Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH, Stanford University, World Health Organization and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

To classify the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in two different geographic settings in western Kenya using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology.The prevalence of drug resistance was classified among treatment-nave smear positive TB patients in two settings, one rural and one urban. These regions were classified as having high or low prevalence of MDR-TB according to a static, two-way LQAS sampling plan selected to classify high resistance regions at greater than 5% resistance and low resistance regions at less than 1% resistance.This study classified both the urban and rural settings as having low levels of TB drug resistance. Out of the 105 patients screened in each setting, two patients were diagnosed with MDR-TB in the urban setting and one patient was diagnosed with MDR-TB in the rural setting. An additional 27 patients were diagnosed with a variety of mono- and poly- resistant strains.Further drug resistance surveillance using LQAS may help identify the levels and geographical distribution of drug resistance in Kenya and may have applications in other countries in the African Region facing similar resource constraints.

PubMed | Syracuse University, Brown University, Indiana University, Moi University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: AIDS and behavior | Year: 2017

Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.

PubMed | National AIDS Control Programme, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, Brown University, New York University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6) and 16.7 (16.3-17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open 4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

PubMed | Syracuse University, Brown University, Indiana University, Moi University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research | Year: 2016

To counteract the syndemics of HIV and alcohol in Sub-Saharan Africa, international collaborations have developed interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Reliable and accurate methods are needed to estimate alcohol use outcomes. A direct alcohol biomarker called phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been shown to validate heavy, daily drinking, but the literature indicates mixed results for moderate and nondaily drinkers, including among HIV-infected populations. This study examined the associations of the PEth biomarker with self-report alcohol use at 2 time points in 127 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya.Participants were consecutively enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a behavioral intervention to reduce alcohol use in Eldoret, Kenya. They endorsed current alcohol use, and a minimum score of 3 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption or consuming 6 drinks per occasion at least monthly in the past year. Study interviews and blood draws were conducted at baseline and at 3months post treatment from July 2012 through September 2013. Alcohol use was assessed using the Timeline Followback questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of the PEth biomarker and were compared to self-reported alcohol use. We also conducted semistructured interviews with 14 study completers in February through March 2014.Baseline data indicated an average of moderate-heavy alcohol use: 50% drinking days and a median of 4.5 drinks per drinking day. At baseline, 46% of women (31 of 67) and 8% of men (5 of 60) tested negative for PEth (p<0.001). At the 3-month follow-up, 93% of women (25 of 27) and 97% of men (30 of 31) who reported drinking tested positive, while 70% of women (28 of 40) and 35% of men (10 of 29) who denied drinking tested negative for PEth. Interviews were consistent with self-reported alcohol use among 13 individuals with negative baseline results.These results add to the growing literature showing lack of agreement between self-report and PEth results among unhealthy and nondaily drinkers, particularly women. More research is needed to determine at what level of consumption over what period of time PEth becomes a reliable and accurate indicator of alcohol use.

PubMed | Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH and Brown University
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

Sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly being challenged in providing care and treatment for chronic diseases, both communicable and non-communicable. In order to address the challenges of linkage to and retention in chronic disease management, there is the need to understand the factors that can influence engagement in care. We conducted a qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to linkage and retention in chronic care for HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and Hypertension (HTN) as part of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program in western Kenya.In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted July 2012-August 2013. Study participants were purposively sampled from three AMPATH clinics and included patients within the AMPATH program receiving HIV, TB, and HTN care, as well as caregivers of children with HIV, community leaders, and healthcare providers. A set of interview guides were developed to explore perceived barriers and facilitators to chronic disease management, particularly related to linkage to and retention in HIV, TB and HTN care. Data were coded and various themes were identified. We organized the concepts and themes generated using the Andersen-Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization.A total of 235 participants including 110 individuals living with HIV (n=50), TB (n=39), or HTN (n=21); 24 caregivers; 10 community leaders; and 62 healthcare providers participated. Barriers and facilitators were categorized as predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need factors. Many of the facilitators and barriers reported in this study were consistently reported across disease categories including personal drive, patient-provider relationships and the need for social and peer support.Our findings provide insight into the individual as well as broader structural factors that can deter or encourage linkage and retention that are relevant across communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases. The findings of the present study suggest that interventions should consider the logistical aspects of accessing care in addition to predisposing and need factors that may affect an individuals decision to seek out and remain in appropriate care.

PubMed | Moi University, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH and University of Eldoret
Type: | Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2016

Stigma shapes all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment, yet there are limited data on how HIV-infected youth and their families are affected by stigma in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions among 39 HIV-infected adolescents receiving care at HIV clinics in western Kenya and 53 caregivers of HIV-infected children. Participants felt that while knowledge and access to treatment were increasing, many community members still held negative and inaccurate views about HIV, including associating it with immorality and believing in transmission by casual interactions. Stigma was closely related to a loss of social and economic support but also included internalized negative feelings about oneself. Participants identified treatment-related impacts of stigma, including nonadherence, nondisclosure of status to child or others, and increased mental health problems. Qualitative inquiry also provided insights into how to measure and reduce stigma among affected individuals and families.

PubMed | Kenya Medical Research Institute, Moi University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of general internal medicine | Year: 2016

Hypertension, the leading global risk factor for mortality, is characterized by low treatment and control rates in low- and middle-income countries. Poor linkage to hypertension care contributes to poor outcomes for patients. However, specific factors influencing linkage to hypertension care are not well known.To evaluate factors influencing linkage to hypertension care in rural western Kenya.Qualitative research study using a modified Health Belief Model that incorporates the impact of emotional and environmental factors on behavior.Mabaraza (traditional community assembly) participants (n=242) responded to an open invitation to residents in their respective communities. Focus groups, formed by purposive sampling, consisted of hypertensive individuals, at-large community members, and community health workers (n=169).We performed content analysis of the transcripts with NVivo 10 software, using both deductive and inductive codes. We used a two-round Delphi method to rank the barriers identified in the content analysis. We selected factors using triangulation of frequency of codes and themes from the transcripts, in addition to the results of the Delphi exercise. Sociodemographic characteristics of participants were summarized using descriptive statistics.We identified 27 barriers to linkage to hypertension care, grouped into individual (cognitive and emotional) and environmental factors. Cognitive factors included the asymptomatic nature of hypertension and limited information. Emotional factors included fear of being a burden to the family and fear of being screened for stigmatized diseases such as HIV. Environmental factors were divided into physical (e.g. distance), socioeconomic (e.g. poverty), and health system factors (e.g. popularity of alternative therapies). The Delphi results were generally consistent with the findings from the content analysis.Individual and environmental factors are barriers to linkage to hypertension care in rural western Kenya. Our analysis provides new insights and methodological approaches that may be relevant to other low-resource settings worldwide.

PubMed | Indiana University, Moi University, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH, New York University and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AIDS and behavior | Year: 2016

We evaluated performance, accuracy, and acceptability parameters of unsupervised oral fluid (OF) HIV self-testing (HIVST) in a general population in western Kenya. In a prospective validation design, we enrolled 240 adults to perform rapid OF HIVST and compared results to staff administered OF and rapid fingerstick tests. All reactive, discrepant, and a proportion of negative results were confirmed with lab ELISA. Twenty participants were video-recorded conducting self-testing. All participants completed a staff administered survey before and after HIVST to assess attitudes towards OF HIVST acceptability. HIV prevalence was 14.6%. Thirty-six of the 239 HIVSTs were invalid (15.1%; 95% CI 11.1-20.1%), with males twice as likely to have invalid results as females. HIVST sensitivity was 89.7% (95% CI 73-98%) and specificity was 98% (95% CI 89-99%). Although sensitivity was somewhat lower than expected, there is clear interest in, and high acceptability (94%) of OF HIV self-testing.

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