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Wachira J.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Kamanda A.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Embleton L.,University of Toronto | Naanyu V.,Moi University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: The objective of this study was to describe the physical, social, and psychological initiation practices of street connected children and youths, in Eldoret, western Kenya. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted from August 2013 to February 2014. A total of 65 SCCY aged 11-24 years were purposively sampled from the three referral points: 1) A dedicated study clinic for vulnerable children and youth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH); 2) Primary locations in which street children reside "bases/barracks"; 3) Street youth community-based organizations. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. All data were audio recorded, transcribed, translated to English, and a content analysis performed. Results: The overall median age was 18 years (IQR 14-20.5 years) and 69.2 % of participants were male. None had gone beyond primary level of education. The majority (81.5 %) reported to be sexually active. The street community had well-defined structures and rules that were protective of members and ensured survival on the streets. To be fully accepted children had to go through an initiation ritual that had important gender differences. Common rituals between males and females included interrogation, smearing of black soot, and payment of tax. Ritual practices unique to boys were physical abuse, theft of personal possessions, volatile substance use, being forced to eat garbage, and sodomy among the physically weak. Rituals unique to girls were being forced to 'become a wife or sexual partner', rape, and gang rape. Physical and psychological abuse during initiation was normalized and there were no clear mechanisms of dealing with these forms of abuse. Conclusion: There were important gender differences in the initiation practices of SCCY. Normalization of physical and psychological abuse during initiation contributes to the high health risks faced by these SCCY. Appropriate interventions need to be developed in collaboration with SCCY. © 2015 Wachira et al.

Genberg B.L.,Policy and Practice | Hogan J.W.,Brown University | Sang E.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Nyambura M.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet HIV | Year: 2015

Background: Few population-based studies exist on the HIV care continuum in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe engagement in care in all adults with an existing diagnosis of HIV and to assess the time to and predictors of linkage and engagement in adults newly diagnosed via home-based counselling and testing (HBCT) in a high-prevalence setting in western Kenya. Methods: Data were derived from AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare), which has provided HIV care in western Kenya since 2001 and the HBCT programme, which has been operating since 2007. After a widespread HBCT programme in Bunyala subcounty from December, 2009, to February, 2011, we reviewed electronic medical records to identify uptake of care in individuals (aged 13 years or older) with previously known (self-reported) infection and new (identified at HBCT) HIV diagnoses as of June 1, 2014. We defined engagement in HIV care as an initial encounter with an HIV care provider. We used Cox regression analysis to examine the predictors of engagement in care for newly diagnosed individuals. Findings: Of the 3482 adults with HIV identified at HBCT, 2122 (61%) had previously been diagnosed with HIV, of whom 1778 (84%) had had at least one clinical encounter within AMPATH. 993 (73%) of the 1360 individuals with new diagnoses at HBCT were registered in the electronic medical records, although only 209 (15%) had seen a clinician over a median of 3·4 years since diagnosis. The median time to engagement in the newly diagnosed individuals was 60 days (IQR 10-411). Interpretation: Creative and innovative strategies are needed to support people to engage with care when they are newly diagnosed with HIV through population-based case-finding initiatives.

Odera E.B.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Kwobah C.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Stone G.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare AMPATH | Some F.,Moi University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2014

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder resulting from a mutation in the hemoglobin (Hb) gene. Sickle cell disease results in chronic anemia and a variety of acute and chronic complications that can lead to early mortality. A child with both SCD and HIV presents a management challenge, particularly in a resource-limited setting. In this case report, we describe the case of an 18-month-old Kenyan girl with SCD and HIV who developed a severe hypersensitivity reaction to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Selecting an appropriate drug substitute for a child with SCD and HIV presents a management dilemma when the available options have problematic side effect profiles or are inaccessible or inappropriate according to national guidelines. The challenges in choosing an appropriate ART regimen for a child with SCD and HIV highlight the lack of data and scarcity of treatment options for pediatric patients. © The Author(s) 2013.

Zachariah R.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Harries A.D.,International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease The Union | Harries A.D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Srinath S.,The Union | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2012

The words 'defaulter', 'suspect' and 'control' have been part of the language of tuberculosis (TB) services for many decades, and they continue to be used in international guidelines and in published literature. From a patient perspective, it is our opinion that these terms are at best inappropriate, coercive and disempowering, and at worst they could be perceived as judgmental and criminalising, tending to place the blame of the disease or responsibility for adverse treatment outcomes on one side -that of the patients. In this article, which brings together a wide range of authors and institutions from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Pacific, we discuss the use of the words 'defaulter', 'suspect' and 'control' and argue why it is detrimental to continue using them in the context of TB. We propose that 'defaulter' be replaced with 'person lost to follow-up'; that 'TB suspect' be replaced by 'person with presumptive TB' or 'person to be evaluated for TB'; and that the term 'control' be replaced with 'prevention and care' or simply deleted. These terms are non-judgmental and patient-centred. We appeal to the global Stop TB Partnership to lead discussions on this issue and to make concrete steps towards changing the current paradigm. © 2012 The Union.

Winston S.E.,Brown University | Chirchir A.K.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Muthoni L.N.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Muthoni L.N.,Aga Khan University | And 11 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2015

Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12-21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had <1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth.

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