Paiva D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Walk C.,ABVista Feed Ingredients |
McElroy A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Poultry science | Year: 2014
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Ca, P, and phytase on performance, intestinal morphology, bone ash, and Ca and P digestibility during a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak. The 35-d trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, which included 2 Ca levels (0.6 and 0.9%), 2 P levels (0.3 and 0.45%), and 2 levels of phytase [0 and 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg]. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock that exhibited clinical signs of NE. Birds and feed were weighed on d 12, 19, and 35, and BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were calculated. Mortality was recorded daily, and gastrointestinal pH was measured. Tibias and ileal digesta were also collected. Birds began exhibiting clinical signs of NE on d 9, and NE-associated mortality persisted until d 26. Dietary Ca supplemented at 0.9% or inclusion of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase significantly increased mortality compared with 0.6% Ca or 0 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively. From d 0 to 12, birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P with phytase had greater BW gain compared with birds fed 0.6% Ca, 0.45% available P, and phytase. From d 0 to 19, birds fed diets with 0.9% Ca and 0.3% available P had decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion compared with birds fed 0.9% Ca and 0.45% available P. Calcium at 0.9% increased gizzard (d 19) and jejunum (d 12) pH. Phytase supplementation significantly increased Ca digestibility regardless of Ca and P levels of the diets. In addition, diets containing 0.6% Ca and 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase resulted in a significant increase in P digestibility. The results suggest that dietary Ca level may influence NE-associated mortality. In addition, bird performance was affected by interactions of Ca, P, and phytase during the exposure to Clostridium perfringens and the subsequent NE outbreak. Results showed improvements in bird performance when birds were fed 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P in diets supplemented with phytase, which was likely consequent to the influence of Ca in NE pathogenesis. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Campasino A.,Auburn University |
York T.,ABVista Feed Ingredients |
Wyatt C.,ABVista Feed Ingredients |
Bedford M.R.,ABVista Feed Ingredients |
Dozier W.A.,Auburn University
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2014
Phytase supplementation beyond the standard doses used for phosphorus release has been reported to result in extraphosphoric effects by enhancing nutrient digestibility resulting in improved performance of broilers. A study was conducted to examine the effects of the progressive addition of an enhanced Escherichia Coli phytase (400-1,600 phytase units; FTU) on growth performance and carcass characteristics from 1 to 42 d of age in male broilers. One thousand four hundred Hubbard × Cobb 500 1-d-old chicks were randomly distributed into 56 floor pens (0.08 m2/bird). Seven dietary treatments were provided in a 3-phase feeding program consisting of (1) a positive control (adequate Ca and nonphytate P; PC); (2) 1 negative control (Ca and nonphytate P reduced by 0.14% and 0.13%; NC); (3 to 6) the NC diet with 4 increasing supplemental phytase concentrations (NC + 400 FTU, NC + 800 FTU, NC + 1,200 FTU, and NC + 1,600 FTU, respectively); and (7) a low-energy NC diet without phytase and xylanase (reduced 66 kcal of AMEn/kg). Body weight gain, feed conversion, mortality, weight and yield of whole carcass, abdominal fat, and pectoralis major and minor muscles were evaluated. Progressive supplementation of phytase decreased cumulative FCR linearly. Broilers fed diets containing 1,600 FTU had heavier total breast meat by 49 g compared with birds receiving the PC diets. Broilers consuming the NC + 400 FTU or the low-energy NC diet had similar growth performance and meat yield compared with birds provided PC diet. These data indicated that phytase supplementation beyond the need for phosphorus enhances growth performance and carcass characteristics. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.