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Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi University ADU was established in 2003, after three years of planning by H. H. Sheikh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan and other distinguished citizens of the United Arab Emirates.The University has stated: The founders of the University envisioned an institution that would be among the best in the UAE, the Persian Gulf region and throughout the world. Wikipedia.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

An unambiguous definition of conformational change and conformational polymorphism, as well as a quantitative basis for the likelihood of its appearance, is reviewed. Conformational adjustment and conformational change are different phenomena. Two polymorphs are conformational polymorphs only if their conformations are related by conformational change. Conformational change requires a change of gas-phase conformer and, hence, crossing of an energy barrier. Energy differences associated with conformational variations of small organic molecules in different polymorphs are usually small. Higher-energy conformations in crystals are rare but possible for molecules that are able to break an intramolecular interaction in favor of a strong intermolecular interaction and molecules that crystallize in special symmetry positions. Polymorphic molecules containing R-bonds that are prone to both change and adjust are likely to display a rich polymorphic landscape.

Balafoutas L.,University of Innsbruck | Nikiforakis N.,Abu Dhabi University | Rockenbach B.,University of Cologne
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

Meyer R.S.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,Abu Dhabi University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

Okeil A.,Abu Dhabi University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

Minimizing energy consumption in buildings has become an important goal in architecture and urban planning in recent years. Guidelines were developed for each climatic zone aiming at increasing solar exposure for buildings in cold climates and at reducing solar exposure for buildings in hot climates. This approach usually plans for the season with the harshest weather; often forgetting that temperatures in cities at latitude 25° can drop below thermal comfort limits in winter and that temperatures in cities at latitude 48° often rise above thermal comfort limits in summer. This paper argues that a holistic approach to energy efficient building forms is needed. It demonstrates a generic energy efficient building form derived by cutting solar profiles in a conventional block. Results show that the proposed building form, the Residential Solar Block (RSB), can maximize solar energy falling on facades and minimize solar energy falling on roofs and on the ground surrounding buildings in an urban area in winter; thus maximizing the potential of passive utilization of solar energy. The RSB also supports strategies for mitigating the urban heat island through increased airflow between buildings, the promotion of marketable green roofs and the reduction of transportation energy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Burt J.A.,Abu Dhabi University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

•Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf.•This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef research in the Gulf.•Of the 270 publications on Gulf reefs since 1950, half occurred in the past decade.•While scientific knowledge has grown, the health of regional reefs has declined.•Scientists must improve dialogue with regional managers and decision-makers. Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf. Analysis of literature from 1950 to 2012 identified 270 publications on coral reefs in the Gulf, half of which were published in just the past decade. This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef science in the Gulf by examining when, where and how research has been conducted on Gulf reefs, who conducted that research, and what themes and taxa have dominated scientific interest. The results demonstrate that there has been significant growth in our understanding of the valuable coral reefs of the Gulf, but also highlight the fact that we are documenting an increasingly degraded ecosystem. Reef scientists must make a concerted effort to improve dialogue with regional reef management and decision-makers if we are to stem the tide of decline in coral reefs in the Gulf. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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