Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi University

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi University ADU was established in 2003, after three years of planning by H. H. Sheikh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan and other distinguished citizens of the United Arab Emirates.The University has stated: The founders of the University envisioned an institution that would be among the best in the UAE, the Persian Gulf region and throughout the world. Wikipedia.

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Doelling K.B.,New York University | Arnal L.H.,New York University | Ghitza O.,Boston University | Poeppel D.,New York University | Poeppel D.,Abu Dhabi University
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (<. 10. Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the 'sharpness' of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Wang Y.,Abu Dhabi University | Quadflieg S.,Abu Dhabi University
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Notwithstanding the significant role that human-robot interactions (HRI) will play in the near future, limited research has explored the neural correlates of feeling eerie in response to social robots. To address this empirical lacuna, the current investigation examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while a group of participants (n = 26) viewed a series of human-human interactions (HHI) and HRI. Although brain sites constituting the mentalizing network were found to respond to both types of interactions, systematic neural variation across sites signaled diverging social-cognitive strategies during HHI and HRI processing. Specifically, HHI elicited increased activity in the left temporal-parietal junction indicative of situation-specific mental state attributions, whereas HRI recruited the precuneus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) suggestive of script-based social reasoning. Activity in the VMPFC also tracked feelings of eeriness towards HRI in a parametric manner, revealing a potential neural correlate for a phenomenon known as the uncanny valley. By demonstrating how understanding social interactions depends on the kind of agents involved, this study highlights pivotal sub-routes of impression formation and identifies prominent challenges in the use of humanoid robots. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

Balafoutas L.,University of Innsbruck | Nikiforakis N.,Abu Dhabi University | Rockenbach B.,University of Cologne
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Reutzel-Edens S.M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol-1, conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol-1 in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

An unambiguous definition of conformational change and conformational polymorphism, as well as a quantitative basis for the likelihood of its appearance, is reviewed. Conformational adjustment and conformational change are different phenomena. Two polymorphs are conformational polymorphs only if their conformations are related by conformational change. Conformational change requires a change of gas-phase conformer and, hence, crossing of an energy barrier. Energy differences associated with conformational variations of small organic molecules in different polymorphs are usually small. Higher-energy conformations in crystals are rare but possible for molecules that are able to break an intramolecular interaction in favor of a strong intermolecular interaction and molecules that crystallize in special symmetry positions. Polymorphic molecules containing R-bonds that are prone to both change and adjust are likely to display a rich polymorphic landscape.

Okeil A.,Abu Dhabi University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

Minimizing energy consumption in buildings has become an important goal in architecture and urban planning in recent years. Guidelines were developed for each climatic zone aiming at increasing solar exposure for buildings in cold climates and at reducing solar exposure for buildings in hot climates. This approach usually plans for the season with the harshest weather; often forgetting that temperatures in cities at latitude 25° can drop below thermal comfort limits in winter and that temperatures in cities at latitude 48° often rise above thermal comfort limits in summer. This paper argues that a holistic approach to energy efficient building forms is needed. It demonstrates a generic energy efficient building form derived by cutting solar profiles in a conventional block. Results show that the proposed building form, the Residential Solar Block (RSB), can maximize solar energy falling on facades and minimize solar energy falling on roofs and on the ground surrounding buildings in an urban area in winter; thus maximizing the potential of passive utilization of solar energy. The RSB also supports strategies for mitigating the urban heat island through increased airflow between buildings, the promotion of marketable green roofs and the reduction of transportation energy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Meyer R.S.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,Abu Dhabi University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

A computational model for RO system design and performance prediction was developed in this study. The model was developed to estimate the performance parameters of RO in a multiple membrane elements pressure vessel. For simplicity the results of this study were compared with Reverse Osmosis System Analysis (ROSA) software which was assumed to have acceptable marginal errors. Two different feed water (NaCl) concentrations 35,000. mg/L and 38,000. mg/L were investigated in this study. In this paper, the recovery rate, salt rejection, feed pressure and permeate concentration of each RO element in the pressure vessel was compared with ROSA as shown in figures 2 to 5. The results from this study showed a very good agreement with ROSA up to 95%. Most of the previous studies were focused on studying the performance of a single RO membrane. This study, probably, the first to present a systematic procedure for estimating the performance of multiple RO elements in a pressure vessel. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2011

This perspective highlights current interest and activity in polymorphism and its potential future directions. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

United Arab Emirates University and Abu Dhabi University | Date: 2012-11-30

This invention provides a method to form nano-sized dispersed structure consisting of aqueous sodium silicate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) solutions, and a binder consisting of a nano-sized dispersed structure and calcium chloride dihydrate solution. The invention provides also a method to immobilize sand dunes and wind-blown dust by using the binder.

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