Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi University

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi University ADU was established in 2003, after three years of planning by H. H. Sheikh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan and other distinguished citizens of the United Arab Emirates.The University has stated: The founders of the University envisioned an institution that would be among the best in the UAE, the Persian Gulf region and throughout the world. Wikipedia.

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Balafoutas L.,University of Innsbruck | Nikiforakis N.,Abu Dhabi University | Rockenbach B.,University of Cologne
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Reutzel-Edens S.M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol-1, conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol-1 in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

An unambiguous definition of conformational change and conformational polymorphism, as well as a quantitative basis for the likelihood of its appearance, is reviewed. Conformational adjustment and conformational change are different phenomena. Two polymorphs are conformational polymorphs only if their conformations are related by conformational change. Conformational change requires a change of gas-phase conformer and, hence, crossing of an energy barrier. Energy differences associated with conformational variations of small organic molecules in different polymorphs are usually small. Higher-energy conformations in crystals are rare but possible for molecules that are able to break an intramolecular interaction in favor of a strong intermolecular interaction and molecules that crystallize in special symmetry positions. Polymorphic molecules containing R-bonds that are prone to both change and adjust are likely to display a rich polymorphic landscape.

Okeil A.,Abu Dhabi University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

Minimizing energy consumption in buildings has become an important goal in architecture and urban planning in recent years. Guidelines were developed for each climatic zone aiming at increasing solar exposure for buildings in cold climates and at reducing solar exposure for buildings in hot climates. This approach usually plans for the season with the harshest weather; often forgetting that temperatures in cities at latitude 25° can drop below thermal comfort limits in winter and that temperatures in cities at latitude 48° often rise above thermal comfort limits in summer. This paper argues that a holistic approach to energy efficient building forms is needed. It demonstrates a generic energy efficient building form derived by cutting solar profiles in a conventional block. Results show that the proposed building form, the Residential Solar Block (RSB), can maximize solar energy falling on facades and minimize solar energy falling on roofs and on the ground surrounding buildings in an urban area in winter; thus maximizing the potential of passive utilization of solar energy. The RSB also supports strategies for mitigating the urban heat island through increased airflow between buildings, the promotion of marketable green roofs and the reduction of transportation energy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Meyer R.S.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,New York University | Purugganan M.D.,Abu Dhabi University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

A computational model for RO system design and performance prediction was developed in this study. The model was developed to estimate the performance parameters of RO in a multiple membrane elements pressure vessel. For simplicity the results of this study were compared with Reverse Osmosis System Analysis (ROSA) software which was assumed to have acceptable marginal errors. Two different feed water (NaCl) concentrations 35,000. mg/L and 38,000. mg/L were investigated in this study. In this paper, the recovery rate, salt rejection, feed pressure and permeate concentration of each RO element in the pressure vessel was compared with ROSA as shown in figures 2 to 5. The results from this study showed a very good agreement with ROSA up to 95%. Most of the previous studies were focused on studying the performance of a single RO membrane. This study, probably, the first to present a systematic procedure for estimating the performance of multiple RO elements in a pressure vessel. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Burt J.A.,Abu Dhabi University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

•Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf.•This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef research in the Gulf.•Of the 270 publications on Gulf reefs since 1950, half occurred in the past decade.•While scientific knowledge has grown, the health of regional reefs has declined.•Scientists must improve dialogue with regional managers and decision-makers. Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf. Analysis of literature from 1950 to 2012 identified 270 publications on coral reefs in the Gulf, half of which were published in just the past decade. This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef science in the Gulf by examining when, where and how research has been conducted on Gulf reefs, who conducted that research, and what themes and taxa have dominated scientific interest. The results demonstrate that there has been significant growth in our understanding of the valuable coral reefs of the Gulf, but also highlight the fact that we are documenting an increasingly degraded ecosystem. Reef scientists must make a concerted effort to improve dialogue with regional reef management and decision-makers if we are to stem the tide of decline in coral reefs in the Gulf. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2011

This perspective highlights current interest and activity in polymorphism and its potential future directions. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

United Arab Emirates University and Abu Dhabi University | Date: 2012-11-30

This invention provides a method to form nano-sized dispersed structure consisting of aqueous sodium silicate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) solutions, and a binder consisting of a nano-sized dispersed structure and calcium chloride dihydrate solution. The invention provides also a method to immobilize sand dunes and wind-blown dust by using the binder.

News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

In this photo taken on Tuesday, Feb. 28, 2017. Syrian diplomat Jihad al-Makdissi talks to journalist during interview with the Associated Press in Geneva, Switzerland. The former government operative and career diplomat is in his element in Geneva, where he is representing one of the opposition groupings participating in United Nations-sponsored peace talks. "Evolution instead of revolution" should be the goal in Syria, Makdissi says. (AP Photo/Amel Emric) GENEVA (AP) — Jihad al-Makdissi was once the mouthpiece for the Syrian government. A familiar face at the front lines of spin, he defended the heavy-handed approach of state security and military forces as Arab Spring-inspired protests swept the nation and then degenerated into a horrific civil war. Now, the former government operative and career diplomat is in his element in Geneva, where he is representing one of the opposition groupings participating in United Nations-sponsored peace talks. "Evolution instead of revolution" should be the goal in Syria, Makdissi says. It is the kind of language that other dissidents view as soft on the fate of President Bashar Assad, one of the issues that has brought past talks to a halt and isn't even under discussion in the latest round of U.N.-mediated talks in Switzerland. Makdissi heads the Cairo platform opposition in Geneva, one of three groups invited by the United Nations envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, in a bid to revive a moribund diplomatic process. Formed in Egypt in 2015, the Cairo platform casts itself as a centrist alternative to the Western, Saudi and Turkey-backed opposition. In contrast with commanders with more limited experience in high-level diplomacy, Makdissi cannot help but stand out, delivering a steady stream of well-targeted messages. "People should know that if we reach an agreement today this is not the end," Makdissi told The Associated Press in an interview. "We have a long way to restructure the political system, to restructure the security apparatus." Any kind of agreement seems a long shot at this stage with no one expecting a breakthrough in what marks the fourth round of U.N.-mediated talks in Geneva in a bid to settle a conflict that has killed more than 400,000 people by most estimates. Points of formality as well as substance divide the three opposition groups at the talks. The largest delegation — a medley of exiled political figures and armed commanders with varying degrees of influence on the ground — would rather bring the Cairo group and a pro-Russia opposition bloc known as the Moscow platform under their umbrella than afford them an equal role in a single delegation. De Mistura struggled to bring them all together for the welcoming ceremony of the fourth round of talks that kicked off Thursday with the modest ambition of establishing the rules of engagement and mapping out the process through which to discuss a political solution that can put an end to six years of conflict. De Mistura wants the participants to consider three issues — elections, governance and redrafting the constitution. It's a vision that was quickly challenged by the Syrian government delegation, which demanded that the war against terrorism be put at the top of the agenda and that the opposition come together. Makdissi says it is natural for the opposition to be diverse, but he has low expectations for the talks. "We know our adversary — after 50 years of ruling Syria, giving concessions is not easy," he told the AP. "We say any change, any departure, should be the result of a process and not a precondition. We have to be realistic after six years. I mean, rebels are not at the door of the presidential palace (in Damascus). Aleppo now is in the hands of the Syrian army." Makdissi urges other opposition factions to be pragmatic and rally around their commonalities — such as a desire to maintain the unity of Syria — and leave the bigger issues for later. He says the course charted by the United Nations resolution guiding de Mistura's work plan would deliver on the goal of political transition, with the agreement of the Syrian government, in a timeframe of 18 months. "All this package would mean is that we achieved the political transition in Syria, and we think that this is the medicine to end the war and have a new Syria," he said. Makdissi's new role in Geneva marks an evolution of sorts. For months, as the death toll mounted in Syria, he was the one in front of the cameras reframing events to fit the government narrative. When security forces opened fire at protesters, he repeated the government-sanctioned line that spoke of "armed clashes." In December 2012, after leaving the country, Makdissi faxed his resignation. "I disagreed on the way the crisis was managed with one unilateral approach, which is the military and security approach," he told the AP. "I wanted a political approach. When you disagree with your government, you resign. That's what diplomats do." He now teaches part-time at the media department of Abu Dhabi University, and has a consultancy in Dubai, where he lives with his family. But the extent of his ambition is on full display in Geneva, where with the poise and aplomb of a veteran diplomat, he advocates for a political solution and the search for common ground. A Western diplomat in Geneva describes him as an "asset" and a strong communicator who comes to the negotiating table with creative ideas, but noted, like others, that he has no constituency on the ground. The diplomat spoke on condition of anonymity because the official was not authorized to speak publicly to the press. Makdissi says the Cairo group has no contacts with the government in Damascus and is working effectively with other platforms to find common ground in a bid to keep up the political momentum of the talks. He shares the view of representatives from other parties and the diplomats that an agreement on the formalities of procedure is the most that can be achieved this round. "This is the only place where we can bridge the gaps," he said. Makdissi said he isn't aware of any legal impediment to his returning to the country but isn't rushing to do so because, he says, post-conflict Syria is governed by too many actors. Like other Syrian dissidents and representatives of armed groups, he recognizes Russia as the most important player when finding a solution to the longstanding conflict. Moscow has been a staunch ally of the government in Damascus, protecting it at the United Nations and lending it military might and airpower. Makdissi hopes warmer ties between Washington and Moscow could pave the way for a political solution in which Russia nudges Assad to make some concessions and Turkey exercises a moderating influence on armed opposition groups. He also hopes that the United States will look at Syria politically and not just militarily in the context of its war against terrorism. "We are waiting for this dialogue between the Kremlin and the White House," he said. "I am hoping also that the Trump administration will reach out and deal with Syria on a political basis."

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