Bern, Switzerland
Bern, Switzerland

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Neumeyer R.,Probsteistrasse 89 | Baur H.,Abteilung Wirbellose Tiere | Guex G.-D.,University of Zürich | Praz C.,University of Neuchatel
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

We combine multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) of body measurements and analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data to examine the status of several species of European paper wasps (Polistes Latreille, 1802) closely related to P. gallicus. Our analyses unambiguously reveal the presence of a cryptic species in Europe, as two distinct species can be recognized in what has hitherto been considered Polistes bischoffi Weyrauch, 1937. One species is almost as light coloured as P. gallicus, and is mainly recorded from Southern Europe and Western Asia. The other species is darker and has a more northern distribution in Central Europe. Both species occur syntopically in Switzerland. Given that the lost lectotype of P. bischoffi originated from Sardinia, we selected a female of the southern species as a neotype. The northern species is described as P. helveticus sp. n. here. We also provide a redescription of P. bischoffi rev. stat. and an identification key including three more closely related species, P. biglumis, P. gallicus and P. hellenicus. © Rainer Neumeyer et al.


Baur H.,Abteilung Wirbellose Tiere | Kranz-Baltensperger Y.,Abteilung Wirbellose Tiere | Cruaud A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rasplus J.-Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus Anisopteromalus. In particular, we apply multivariate ratio analysis (MRA), a rather new statistical method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to numerous body measurements and combine the data with those from our molecular analysis of Cytb and ITS2 genetic markers (on a subset of species) and all available published data on morphology, karyology, behaviour, host associations and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that the analysis of quantitative characters using MRA plays a major role for the integration of name-bearing types and thus for the association of taxa with names. Six species are recognized, of which two are new: A.cornis Baur sp.n. and A.quinarius Gokhman & Baur sp.n. For Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), a well-known, cosmopolitan parasitoid of stored-product pests, we have selected a neotype to foster continuity and stability in the application of this important name. The species was sometimes confused with the related A.quinarius sp.n., another cosmopolitan species that is frequently encountered in similar environments. We also show that several species originally described or later put under Anisopteromalus actually belong to different genera: Cyrtoptyx camerunus (Risbec) comb.n.; Meraporus glaber (Szelényi) comb.n.; Dinarmus schwenkei (Roomi, Khan & Khan) comb.n. Neocatolaccus indicus Ayyar & Mani is confirmed as a junior synonym of Oxysychus sphenopterae (Ferrière) syn.n. and Anisopteromalus calandrae brasiliensis (Domenichini) stat.rev. must be considered as a valid but doubtful taxon. © 2014 The Authors. Systematic Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Royal Entomological Society.


PubMed | Abteilung Wirbellose Tiere, Moscow State University and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Systematic entomology | Year: 2015

We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus


Krimmer E.,University of Hohenheim | Brose S.,University of Hohenheim | Gantert C.,University of Hohenheim | Klopfstein S.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes newecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Laszlo Z.,Babes - Bolyai University | Baur H.,Abteilung Wirbellose Tiere | Tothmeresz B.,Mta Of Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services Research Group
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2013

We demonstrate by multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) the validity of two female colour morphs as separate species in what was previously regarded as a single species, Trigonoderus cyanescens (Förster, 1841) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). As a result, T.pedicellaris Thomson, 1878 stat.r., is resurrected from synonymy under T.cyanescens and T.filatus binubilatus Erdos, 1960 syn.n. is synonymized with T.cyanescens. More than 20 characters were measured as part of two MRA dataset analyses. The first analysis excluded all measurements related to the gaster, whereas the second included gaster length, gaster breadth and seventh gaster tergite breadth. The first analysis revealed that the best separating morphometric ratios for the two species are head breadth:metatibia length and OOL:parastigma length, whereas the second analysis revealed OOL:gaster length as the second best separating ratio. The measurement error of all characters was below the admissible level of 30%. Gaster length proved to be a good character for separating the two groups, showed the lowest measurement error, and its percentage coefficient of variation was not greater than for other characters. This indicates that gaster length should not be discarded out-of-hand as a morphometric character in Pteromalidae. The variables that gave the best separating ratios included different body parts; therefore we suggest that the body of a specimen should be taken as a whole for use in MRA analyses, where each distance measurement can interact freely with any other. A key, figures and re-descriptions of T.cyanescens and T.pedicellaris are provided. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

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