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Tifton, GA, United States

Arruda M.P.,Urbana University | Brown P.J.,Urbana University | Lipka A.E.,Urbana University | Krill A.M.,Urbana University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genome

Genomic selection (GS) is a breeding method that uses marker-trait models to predict unobserved phenotypes. This study developed GS models for predicting traits associated with resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify 5054 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were then treated as predictor variables in GS analysis. We compared how the prediction accuracy of the genomic-estimated breeding values (GE- BVs) was affected by (i) five genotypic imputation methods (random forest imputation [RFI], expectation maximization imputation [EMI], k-nearest neighbor imputation [kNNI], singular value decomposition imputation [SVDI], and the mean imputation [MNI]); (ii) three statistical models (ridge-regression best linear unbiased predictor [RR-BLUP], least absolute shrinkage and operator selector [LASSO], and elastic net); (iii) marker density (p = 500, 1500, 3000, and 4500 SNPs); (iv) training population (TP) size (nTP = 96, 144, 192, and 218); (v) marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices; and (vi) control for relatedness in TPs and validation populations (VPs). No discernable differences in prediction accuracy were observed among imputation methods. The RR-BLUP outperformed other models in nearly all scenarios. Accuracies decreased substantially when marker number decreased to 3000 or 1500 SNPs, depending on the trait; when sample size of the training set was less than 192; when using pedigree-based instead of marker-based matrix; or when no control for relatedness was implemented. Overall, moderate to high prediction accuracies were observed in this study, suggesting that GS is a very promising breeding strategy for FHB resistance in wheat. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Kowalewski A.R.,Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College | Rogers III J.N.,Michigan State University | Crum J.R.,Michigan State University | Dunne J.C.,Michigan State University

Drain tile installation into a native-soil athletic field and subsequent sand topdressing applications are cost-effective alternatives to complete field renovation. However, if cumulative topdressing rates exceed root system development, surface stability may be compromised. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of cumulative topdressing, over a compacted sandy loam soil, on the fall wear tolerance and surface shear strength of a kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)- perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) stand. Research was initiated in East Lansing, MI, on 10 Apr. 2007. A well-graded, high-sand-content root zone (90.0% sand, 7.0% silt, and 3.0% clay) was topdressed at a 0.25-inch depth [2.0 lb/ft2 (dry weight)] per application, providing cumulative topdressing depths of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 inches applied from 11 July to 15 Aug. 2007. Fall traffic was applied twice weekly to all treatments from 10 Oct. to 3 Nov. 2007. In 2008, topdressing applications and traffic, as described earlier, were repeated on the same experimental plots. Results obtained from this research suggest that the 0.5-inch topdressing depth applied over a 5-week period in the summer will provide improved shoot density and surface shear strength in the subsequent fall. Results also suggest that topdressing rates as thick as 4.0 inches accumulated over a 2-year period will provide increased shoot density, but diminished surface shear strength. Source

Truman C.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Nuti R.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Truman L.R.,Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College | Dean J.D.,ArcTellus

Crop production in Georgia and the Southeastern U.S. can be limited by water. Highly-weathered, drought-prone soils are susceptible to runoff and erosion. Rainfall patterns generate runoff producing storms followed by extended periods of drought during the crop growing season. Thus, supplemental irrigation is often needed to sustain profitable crop production. Increased water retention and soil conservation would efficiently improve water use and reduce irrigation amounts/costs and sedimentation, and sustain productive farm land, thus improving producer's profit margin. Soil amendments, such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, have been shown to retain rainfall and/or irrigation water through increased infiltration while decreasing runoff (R) and sediment (E). Objectives were to quantify rainfall partitioning and sediment delivery improvements with surface applied FGD gypsum from an Ultisol managed to conventional till (CT) and to assess the feasibility of using FGD gypsum on agricultural land in southern Georgia. A field study (Faceville loamy sand, Typic Kandiudult) was established (2006, 2007) near Dawson, GA managed to CT, irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). FGD gypsum application rates evaluated were 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha -1. Gypsum treatments and simulated rainfall (50 mm h -1 for 1 h) were applied to 2-m wide×3-m long field plots (n=3). Runoff and E were measured from each 6-m 2 plot (slope=1%). FGD gypsum plots averaged 26% more infiltration (INF), 40% less R, 58% less E, 27% lower maximum R rates (R max), and 2 times lower maximum E rates (E max) than control plots. Values of INF and water for crop use increased, and R, E, R max, and E max decreased as FGD gypsum application rate increased. Values of INF, R, E, R max, and E max for 9 Mg ha -1 plots were as much as 17% greater, 35% less, 1.9 times less, 35% less, and 1.9 times less than those from other FGD gypsum plots, respectively; and 40% greater, 40% less, 2.2 times less, 52% less, and 2.9 times less than those from control plots, respectively. Applying FGD gypsum to agricultural lands is a cost-effective management practice for producers in Georgia that beneficially impacts natural resource conservation, producer profit margins, and environmental quality. Agriculture in the Southeast provides a viable market for the electric power industry to convert disposal costs of FGD gypsum into a profitable commodity. Source

Daly E.R.,Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College | Fox G.A.,Oklahoma State University | Enlow H.K.,Oklahoma State University
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2015: Floods, Droughts, and Ecosystems - Proceedings of the 2015 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress

The jet erosion test (JET) is one of the most commonly used in situ methods of measuring erodibility parameters (critical shear stress, τc, and erodibility coefficient, kd) of cohesive soils. Several factors can influence the erodibility of cohesive soils, but the influence of these factors is not captured by conducting a few JETs at one discrete point in time and at one location on a streambank. Current practice largely ignores the parameter, spatial, and temporal relationships in erodibility. Furthermore, in many cases the erodibility parameters are not characterized in situ, but estimated empirically with relationships that may not be good predictors for all streambanks. Building upon previous studies, the objectives were to address variability in JET-derived erodibility parameters at a site scale and across a range of soil erodibility with respect to soil parameter correlations, temporal variability, spatial variability, and testing variability. Also, this research estimated the number of JETs required to accurately characterize erodibility. A total of 74 JETs were conducted within visually homogeneous streambank layers at three sites in Oklahoma along with measurements of soil physical parameters such as texture, bulk density, and moisture content. At the site-scale τc and kd varied by up to three orders of magnitude. While there were correlations between the erodibility parameters and measured soil parameters, there were no reliable relationships with strong predictive capabilities at any of the sites for any of the soil parameters. Also, there were no significant multiple linear regressions to predict τc and kd based on more than one soil parameter. Conducting three to five JETs per soil layer on a streambank typically provided an order of magnitude estimate of the erodibility parameters. Because the parameters were log-normally distributed, using empirical equations to predict erosion properties based on soil characteristics will likely contain high uncertainty and thus should be used with caution. This research exemplifies the need to conduct in situ measurements using the JET. © 2015 ASCE. Source

Daly E.R.,Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College | Daly E.R.,State University | Fox G.A.,State University | Fox G.A.,Water Resources Center | Fox A.K.,State University
Transactions of the ASABE

One of the most commonly used methods of measuring erodibility parameters, i.e., critical shear stress (τc) and erodibility coefficient (kd), of cohesive soils is the Jet Erosion Test (JET). While numerous factors influence the erodibility parameters, the JET provides an in situ measurement technique. However, in many cases where erodibility parameters are required for simulating channel erosion processes, the erodibility parameters are not characterized in situ but estimated empirically based on soil physical properties with relationships that may not be good predictors for all streambanks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the correlation between the erodibility parameters measured with JETs and soil physical properties at a site-specific scale and across three unique streambanks. A total of 74 JETs were conducted within visually homogeneous streambank layers at three sites in OK along with measurements of soil physical parameters such as texture, bulk density, moisture content, and water and soil temperatures. At the site scale, τc and kd varied by up to three orders of magnitude. Neither multiple linear regressions nor principal components regressions suggested any consistent strongly correlated variables. Therefore, erodibility parameters measured in this study could not be predicted based solely on soil physical properties. It was concluded that τc and kd must be measured in situ and cannot be estimated from empirical relationships due to the heterogeneous nature of soil and the variability in subaerial processes, even within visually homogeneous streambank layers. More research is needed in order to correlate erodibility parameters to other soil parameters and quantify the role of subaerial processes, such as seepage, soil desiccation, and freeze-thaw cycles, on erodibility in order to incorporate spatial variability of erodibility parameters into stability and channel evolution models. © 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Source

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