Abidjan, Ivory Coast
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Ntie-Kang F.,University of Douala | Ntie-Kang F.,University of Buea | Ntie-Kang F.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Onguene P.A.,University of Douala | And 6 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

We assess the medicinal value and "drug-likeness" of ∼3200 compounds of natural origin, along with some of their derivatives which were obtained through hemisynthesis. In the present study, 376 distinct medicinal plant species belonging to 79 plant families from the Central African flora have been considered, based on data retrieved from literature sources. For each compound, the optimised 3D structure has been used to calculate physicochemical properties which determine oral availability on the basis of Lipinski's "Rule of Five". A comparative analysis has been carried out with the "drug-like", "lead-like", and "fragment-like" subsets, containing respectively 1726, 738 and 155 compounds, as well as with our smaller previously published CamMedNP library and the Dictionary of Natural products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the DIVERSet™ Database (containing 48651 compounds) from ChemBridge. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the Central African flora, could be promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ntie-Kang F.,University of Douala | Ntie-Kang F.,University of Buea | Ntie-Kang F.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Kannan S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 6 more authors.
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2014

Recently, the search for new drugs against tuberculosis (TB) has been a hot topic and the search for new inhibitors against validated drug targets and pathways other than those currently targeted by known drugs is suggested to be the most promising way forward. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pantothenate synthetase (MTBPS) happens to be one of such targets. In a quest to carry out virtual screening for active inhibitors against MTBPS and to get ideas for the design of new inhibitors against this target, we have docked a set of pyrazole-based inhibitors to the active site of this enzyme. The docking solutions were post processed using the MM-PB(GB)SA method and molecular dynamic simulations in order to analyze and validate the two previously proposed binding modes. The results show that both the MM-PBSA and MM-GBSA were able to discriminate between active and inactive compounds. Moreover, the pharmacophore-based scoring method proved efficient in discriminating the active compounds from inactives. From this work a protocol for screening of potential inhibitors of the enzyme from commercially available databases has been devised. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Dobo M.,University of Abobo Adjame | Ayres N.,Texas A&M University | Walker G.,Texas A&M University | Park W.D.,Texas A&M University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2010

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between waxy allelic forms and amylose in European and US rice germplasm. These allelic forms were defined according to the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) found in the leader intron 5′ splice site (G → T), exon 6 (A → C) and exon 10 (C → T). The combination of these three SNPs accounted for 89.2% of the variation in apparent amylose content in a pedigree of 85 US rice varieties and 93.8% of the variation among 279 accessions in a European germplasm collection. The allelic forms TAC and TCC were found in low amylose varieties. All varieties with intermediate levels of apparent amylose had the GCC allele. High levels of apparent amylose varieties had either the GAT and GAC allele. The sequence AG. TTATA in the intron 1 distinguished the low amylose varieties from the other classes regardless of any other base changes. Intermediate amylose varieties can be distinguished from those with high apparent amylose by changes in either exon 6 or exon 10. However the simplest interpretation of the data is that the tyrosine/serine change in exon 6 is responsible for the lower levels of Granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) protein and thus lower levels of amylose in intermediate vs. high amylose verities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Coulibaly S.S.,University of Abobo Adjame | Zoro Bi I.A.,University of Abobo Adjame
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2010

The growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae were evaluated in four animal species wastes under laboratory conditions. Two hatchlings were introduced in 100 g of each animal waste i.e. cow, sheep, pig, and chicken after 15 days of pre-composting. Biomass gain, mortality, sexual maturity, and cocoons production were monitored periodically for 21 weeks. No mortality was observed in any waste. The maximum weight gain per worm and the highest growth rate per worm per week were obtained in chicken waste. Net biomass gain per worm were 1.01 ± 0.52 g, 1.318 ± 0.07 g, 0.87 ± 0.1 g, and 1.69 ± 0.15 g respectively for cow, sheep, pig, and chicken wastes. The highest number of cocoons produced per worm per day was obtained in chicken waste followed in decreasing order by sheep, cow, and pig waste. The mean number of cocoons produced per worm per day in chicken waste was 40.87% greater than these produced per day in pig waste.Among the four animal species, chicken, sheep, and cow were the most favourable wastes for the growth and reproduction of E. eugeniae, and hence can be recommended as feed materials in large scale vermicomposting facilities. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


The determination of the uronic acid content of biological and food substances is of primary importance when their functionalities are being investigated. To date, three kinds of colorimetric-H 2SO 4 procedures using carbazole, meta-hydroxydiphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenol chromogenic compounds are the most currently used to achieve this goal. However, great discrepancies in inter- and intra-procedure data are frequently noted in the literature for the same kinds of raw materials. A scrutiny of a large number of published procedures in combination with personal communication have permitted us to find out several potential results "modifiers," i. e., the experimental parameters, which modification alone, even slight, can engender significant variations in the final data, compared with the data from the original procedure. No less than a dozen factors have been pin-pointed as critical and discrepancy causing. Therefore, unreliable modification of a parameter at once without concomitant optimization of all the main parameters should completely be avoided. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dosso K.,University of Abobo Adjame
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2012

Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) is used in Africa as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis and diarrhoea. We investigated the antidiarrhoeal properties of a crude ethanol extract from the stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum (EEPR) in Wistar albino rats to substantiate its traditional use and to determine its phytochemical constituents. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the plant extract was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats and compared with loperamide. The effect of the extract on gastrointestinal motility was also determined by the oral administration of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling). EEPR showed remarkable dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity evidenced by a reduction of defecation frequency and change in consistency. Extracts at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced diarrhoeal faeces. EEPR also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling at 500 and 1000 mg/kg, similar to the inhibition obtained in control rats treated by atropine. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing sugars in the stem bark of P. reticulatum. No mortality or visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following administration of the crude extract in doses up to 6000 mg/kg body weight in an acute toxicity study. Our results show that the stem bark of P. reticulatum possesses antidiarrhoeal activity and strongly suggest that its use in traditional medicine practice could be justified.


Sileshi G.W.,Chitedze Agricultural Research Station | Arshad M.A.,University of Alberta | Konate S.,University of Abobo Adjame | Nkunika P.O.Y.,University of Zambia
Journal of Vegetation Science | Year: 2010

Objectives: To (1) assess the strength of evidence for the role of termites in vegetation heterogeneity in African savannas, and (2) identify the mechanisms by which termites induce such heterogeneity. Location: African savannas. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature, a meta-analysis and qualitative systems analysis to identify mechanisms to explain the observed patterns. Results: The review provided evidence for termite-induced heterogeneity in floristic composition and vegetation patterning in savannas across Africa. Termites induced vegetation heterogeneity directly or indirectly through their nest-building and foraging activities, associated nutrient cycling and their interaction with mammalian herbivores and fire. The literature reviewed indicated that termite mounds essentially act as islands of fertility, which are responsible for ecosystem-level spatial heterogeneity in savannas. This was supported by the meta-analysis, which demonstrated that mounds of Ancistrotermes, Macrotermes, Odontotermes (family Macrotermitinae), Cubitermes (family Termitinae) and Trinervitermes (Nasutitermitinae) are significantly enriched in clay (75%), carbon (16%), total nitrogen (42%), calcium (232%), potassium (306%) and magnesium (154%) compared to the surrounding savanna soil. Conclusions: Termite activity is one of the major factors that induce vegetation patterning in African savannas. The implications of this are discussed and research questions for future studies and modelling efforts are indicated. © 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.


Mohamed C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Clementine K.A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Clementine K.A.,University of Abobo Adjame | Didier M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Effects of lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) incorporated directly into chitosan films at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were studied. Films obtained were tested on the inhibition of phytopathogenic strains such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangifera indica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. 64, C. 4612 and C. 62) and Lasiodiplodia theobromae ngr 05A. Water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of films with LPOS and/or not iodine were also studied. Antibacterial effect obtained by disc diameter technique indicated that chitosan concentration at 1 and 1.5% (w/w) incorporated with LPOS and/or not iodine inhibited higher X. campestris pv. M. indica than chitosan film alone or at low concentrated of 0.5% incorporated by LPOS. The antimicrobial technique using puncture gave very good information on the antifungal effect and on the variability in susceptibility of strains of fungi. C. gloeosporioides C64 and L. theobromae were inhibited completely by 1 and 1.5% chitosan incorporated by LPOS contained or not iodine, while C. gloeosporioides C4612 was sensitive to the presence of iodine and C62 were resistant strains. The properties of chitosan films were not significantly changed by the incorporation of the enzyme system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Yapo B.M.,University of Abobo Adjame
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

Pectic substances are a group of polysaccharides in plant cell walls and some mucilages, which are endowed with multifunctional properties in muro as well as out of muro, such as the control of cell wall integrity and porosity, the protection of plants against phytopathogens, and gelling, emulsifying, stabilising, thickening and health benefit properties to name a few. The fine structures of distinct pectic elements and complex pectins formed from these are not, however, fully known. It is widely believed that three to four pectic element kinds, namely, homogalacturonan (HG), rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and/or xylogalacturonan (XGA) are covalently inter-linked to form pectin-complex in muro, but the way different blocks of these pectic polysaccharides are positioned relative to one another in such a macromolecular pectin-complex is still a matter of controversy. This review aims at emphasizing on the depiction of the four possible structural elements of complex pectins and providing an update for them in the light of the latest findings. In addition, it pinpoints evidence for the insufficiency of the two main hypothetical models currently existing and the possibility that such a pectin composite could be more complicated as shown in a new hypothetical model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Yapoga S.,University of Abobo Adjame | Ossey Y.B.,University of Abobo Adjame | Kouame V.,University of Abobo Adjame
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Eichhornia crassipes was tested for its high capacity to bioconcentrate four heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, and Cr) commonly found in wastewater from industries. Young plants of equal size were cultured in plastic tub containing industrial wastewater. Therefore, control experimental sets contained only mining effluent without any plants. The digested samples were analyzed for four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr) by a Perkin Elmer 3000DV Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Eichhornia crassipes removed appreciable amount of heavy metals during a 15 days experiment. Maximum removal of metals was recorded on the 10th day of exposure. Roots of Eichhornia crassipes proved better accumulator of the metals than leaves. Eichhornia crassipes can be used to serve as a phytoremediation plant in the cleaning up of Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr from industrial wastewater.

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