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Turku, Finland

Åbo Akademi University is the only exclusively Swedish language university in Finland. It is located in Turku . As of 2004, there are 7 941 students and a staff consisting of 1 125 people. The university has activities not only in Turku, but also in Vaasa, Jakobstad, Helsinki and on Åland. Åbo Akademi was a private institution until 1981, when it was turned into a public institution.Åbo Akademi should not be confused with the Royal Academy of Åbo, which was founded in 1640, but moved to Helsinki after the Turku fire of 1827 and is today known as the University of Helsinki.Åbo Akademi was founded by private donations in 1918 as the third university in Finland, both to let Turku again become a university town and because it was felt that the Swedish language was threatened at the University of Helsinki. The Finnish University of Turku was founded 1920, also by private donations and for similar reasons.As the only uni-lingually Swedish multi-faculty university in the world outside Sweden and consequently the only one in Finland, Åbo Akademi University is responsible for higher education for a large proportion of the Swedish-speaking population. This role has many implications on the education and research as well as on the social environment. As there are few students in most subjects, cooperation between the subjects and with other universities is very important.A significant minority of the students are Finnish-speaking. While Turku in itself is mostly Finnish, the university provides a strong Swedish environment. Most of the students, regardless of original language, will be functionally bilingual when finishing their studies.The university has a policy that non-Swedish speaking applicants from the Nordic countries are required to participate in a Swedish language test, in order to prove their ability to successfully study in Swedish. Applicants from non-Nordic countries can, however, choose between Swedish or English language tests. Wikipedia.

Hupa M.,Abo Akademi University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

Finland and Sweden are leaders in the use of biomass fuels in large-scale boilers. In these countries, the dominating large-scale combustion technology for biomass fuels is fluidized-bed combustion (FBC). Biomass fuels differ in many ways from the standard fossil fuels used in FBC, such as coal. They often have high moisture contents, lower heating values, and a variety of impurities, such as chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, and a variety of ash-forming metals. FBC of biomass fuels is often connected with operational challenges, which are related to the fuel chemistry and fuel properties. Bed sintering, superheater fouling, and high-temperature corrosion are crucial factors to take into account when fuels are selected for FBC. It is of vital interest to find ways of predicting the degree of these kinds of ash-related problems for various fuels or fuel mixtures. This paper reviews some of the recent progress in our understanding of the fate and behavior of ash-forming matter in FBC. The following topic areas are discussed: fuel characterization, release of the ash-forming matter during combustion, interaction of the ash and bed material, fly ash formation, fly ash properties, ash deposits, and fouling and corrosion. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Slotte J.P.,Abo Akademi University
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Sphingomyelin (SM) is a dominant sphingolipid in membranes of mammalian cells and this lipid class is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane, the endocytic recycling compartment, and the trans Golgi network. The distribution of SM and cholesterol among cellular compartments correlate. Sphingolipids have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities which together with their saturated nature facilitate the formation of sphingolipid and SM-enriched lateral domains in membranes. Cholesterol prefers to interact with SMs and this interaction has many important functional consequences. In this review, the synthesis, regulation, and intracellular distribution of SMs are discussed. The many direct roles played by membrane SM in various cellular functions and processes will also be discussed. These include involvement in the regulation of endocytosis and receptor-mediated ligand uptake, in ion channel and G-protein coupled receptor function, in protein sorting, and functioning as receptor molecules for various bacterial toxins, and for non-bacterial pore-forming toxins. SM is also an important constituent of the eye lens membrane, and is believed to participate in the regulation of various nuclear functions. SM is an independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and new studies have shed light on possible mechanism behind its role in atherogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Murzin D.Y.,Abo Akademi University
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2010

The impact of nanoparticle size effects in heterogeneous catalytic kinetics over supported metal catalysts is discussed taking into account different activities of edges and terraces. Kinetic equations for the Eley-Rideal mechanism as well as for the two-step sequence were derived, analyzed and compared with experimental data for ethene hydrogenation. Quantitative description for selectivity in a consecutive reaction of pyrrole hydrogenation/ring opening as function of the metal cluster size is provided demonstrating good correspondence between theory and experiments. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Peter Slotte J.,Abo Akademi University
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Sphingomyelins are important phospholipids in plasma membranes of most cells. Because of their dominantly saturated nature, they affect the lateral structure of membranes, and contribute to the regulation of cholesterol distribution within membranes, and in cells. However, the abundance of molecular species present in cells also implies that sphingomyelins have other, more specific functions. Many of these functions are currently unknown, but are under extensive study. Mostly model membrane studies have shown that sphingomyelins (and other sphingolipids), in contrast to glycerophospholipids, have important hydrogen bonding properties which in several important ways confer specific functional properties to this abundant class of membrane phospholipids. The often very asymmetric nature of sphingomyelins, arising from mismatch in length between the long chain base and N-acyl chains, also impose specific properties (e.g., interdigitation) to sphingomyelins not seen with glycerophospholipids. In this review, the latest sphingomyelin literature will be scrutinized, and an effort will be made to correlate the molecular structure of sphingomyelin with functional properties. In particular, the effects of head group properties, interfacial hydrogen bonding, long chain base hydroxylation, N-acyl chain hydroxylation, and N-acyl chain methyl-branching will be discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kjernsmo K.,Abo Akademi University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. Source

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